Illicit drugs are considered to be emerging aquatic pollutants since they are commonly found in freshwater ecosystems in the high ngL-1 to low μgL-1 range concentrations. Although the environmental occurrence of the most common psychoactive compounds is well known, recently some investigations showed their potential toxicity toward non-target aquatic organisms. However, to date, these studies completely neglected that organisms in the real environment are exposed to a complex mixture, which could lead to dissimilar adverse effects. The present study investigated the oxidative alterations of the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha induced by a 14-d exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of the most common illicit drugs found in the aquatic environment, namely cocaine (50ngL-1), benzoylecgonine (300ngL-1), amphetamine (300ngL-1), morphine (100ngL-1) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (50ngL-1). The total oxidant status (TOS) was measured to investigate the increase in the reactive oxygen species' levels, while the activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione S-transferase were measured to note the eventual imbalances between pro-oxidant and antioxidant molecules. In addition, oxidative damage was assessed by measuring the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation. Significant time-dependent increases of all the antioxidant activities were induced by the mixture. Moreover, the illicit drug mixture significantly increased the levels of carbonylated proteins and caused a slight variation in lipid peroxidation. Our results showed that a mixture of illicit drugs at realistic environmental concentrations can impair the oxidative status of the zebra mussel, posing a serious hazard to the health status of this bivalve species.
Realistic mixture of illicit drugs impaired the oxidative status of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) / M. Parolini, S. Magni, S. Castiglioni, E. Zuccato, A. Binelli. - In: CHEMOSPHERE. - ISSN 0045-6535. - 128(2015), pp. 96-102.
|Titolo:||Realistic mixture of illicit drugs impaired the oxidative status of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)|
PAROLINI, MARCO (Corresponding)
MAGNI, STEFANO (Secondo)
BINELLI, ANDREA PAOLO (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||illicit drugs; mixture; oxidative stress; zebra mussel; environmental chemistry; chemistry (all)|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/07 - Ecologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.12.092|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|