Glutamate synthase (GltS) is, with glutamine synthetase, the key enzyme of ammonia assimilation in bacteria, microorganisms and plants. GltS isoforms result from the assembly and co-evolution of conserved functional domains. They share a common mechanism of reductive glutamine-dependent glutamate synthesis from 2-oxoglutarate, which takes place within the α subunit (∼150 kDa) of the NADPH-dependent bacterial enzyme and the corresponding polypeptides of other GltS forms, and involves: (i) an Ntn-type amidotransferase domain and (ii) a flavin mononucleotide-containing (β/α) 8 barrel synthase domain connected by (iii) a ∼30 Å-long intramolecular ammonia tunnel. The synthase domain harbors the [3Fe/4S] 0,+1 cluster of the enzyme, which participates in the electron transfer process from the physiological reductant: reduced ferredoxin in the plant-type enzyme or NAD(P)H in the bacterial and the non-photosynthetic eukaryotic form. The NAD(P)H-dependent GltS requires a tightly bound flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent reductase (β subunit, ∼50 kDa), also determining the presence of two low-potential [4Fe-4S] +1,+2 clusters. Structural, functional and computational data available on GltS and related enzymes show how the enzyme may control and coordinate the reactions taking place at the glutaminase and synthase sites by sensing substrate binding and cofactor redox state.
|Titolo:||Structure-function studies on the iron-sulfur flavoenzyme glutamate synthase: an unexpectedly complex self-regulated enzyme|
|Autori interni:||VANONI, MARIA ANTONIETTA (Primo)|
CURTI, BRUNO (Ultimo)
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/10 - Biochimica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2005|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.abb.2004.08.033|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|