The immunostimulatory ability of synthetic oligonucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG-ODN), agonists of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), can be harnessed to promote antitumor immunity by their application at the tumor site to stimulate local activation of innate immunity; however, particularly in the lung, tumor-associated immunosuppression can subvert such antitumor innate immune responses. To locally maintain continuous activation of innate subpopulations while inhibiting immunosuppressive cells, we evaluated aerosol delivery CpG-ODN combined with Poly(I:C), a TLR3 agonist able to convert tumor-supporting macrophages to tumoricidal effectors, in the treatment of B16 melanoma lung metastases in C57BL/6 mice. Aerosolization of CpG-ODN with Poly(I:C) into the bronchoalveolar space reduced the presence of M2-associated arginase- and IL-10-secreting macrophages in tumor-bearing lungs and increased the antitumor activity of aerosolized CpG-ODN alone against B16 lung metastases without apparent signs of toxicity or injury of the bronchial-bronchiolar structures and alveolar walls. Moreover, CpG-ODN/Poly(I:C) aerosol combined with dacarbazine, a therapeutic agent used in patients with inoperable metastatic melanoma able to exert immunostimulatory effects, led to a significant increase in antitumor activity as compared to treatments with aerosolized CpG-ODN/Poly(I:C) or dacarbazine alone. This effect was related to an enhanced recruitment and cytotoxic activity of tumor-infiltrating NK cells in the lung. Our results point to aerosol delivery as a convenient approach for repeated applications of immunostimulants in patients with lung metastases to maintain a continuous local activation of innate immune cells while suppressing polarization of tumor-infiltrating macrophages to an M2 phenotype.
|Titolo:||Poly(I:C) and CpG-ODN combined aerosolization to treat lung metastases and counter the immunosuppressive microenvironment|
|Parole Chiave:||aerosol delivery; dacarbazin; lung metastases; mice; TLR agonists; Immunology and Allergy; Oncology; Immunology|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/04 - Patologia Generale|
|Data di pubblicazione:||ott-2015|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1080/2162402X.2015.1040214|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|