The minimisation of water consumption in waste-to-energy (WtE) plants is an outstanding issue, especially in those regions where water supply is critical and withdrawals come from municipal waterworks. Among the various possible solutions, the most general, simple and effective one is the reuse of process water. This paper discusses the effectiveness of two different reuse options in an Italian WtE plant, starting from the analytical characterisation and the flow-rate measurement of fresh water and process water flows derived from each utility internal to the WtE plant (e.g. cooling, bottom ash quenching, flue gas wet scrubbing). This census allowed identifying the possible direct connections that optimise the reuse scheme, avoiding additional water treatments. The effluent of the physical–chemical wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), located in the WtE plant, was considered not adequate to be directly reused because of the possible deposition of mineral salts and clogging potential associated to residual suspended solids. Nevertheless, to obtain high reduction in water consumption, reverse osmosis should be installed to remove non-metallic ions (Cl, SO24) and residual organic and inorganic pollutants. Two efficient solutions were identified. The first, a simple reuse scheme based on a cascade configuration, allowed 45% reduction in water consumption (from 1.81 to 0.99 m tMSW, MSW: Municipal Solid Waste) without specific water treatments. The second solution, a cascade configuration with a recycle based on a reverse osmosis process, allowed 74% reduction in water consumption (from 1.81 to 0.46 m tMSW). The results of the present work show that it is possible to reduce the water consumption, and in turn the wastewater production, reducing at the same time the operating cost of the WtE plant.
|Titolo:||Reuse of process water in a waste-to-energy plant: an Italian case of study|
GARDONI, DAVIDE (Primo)
|Parole Chiave:||Reuse; Sustainability; Waste-to-energy; Wastewater; Water consumption; Water minimisation|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore ICAR/03 - Ingegneria Sanitaria-Ambientale|
|Data di pubblicazione:||set-2015|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.wasman.2015.05.004|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|