Environmental monitoring and hydrodynamic studies were carried out to understand the forcing mechanisms that are responsible for the circulation patterns of the several small coastal lagoons of Sardinia, in the center of the Mediterranean sea, Italy. The water level observed in the Calich lagoon showed a free-surface oscillation with a semidiurnal period (tide) and a second order oscillation with higher frequency and lower amplitude (seiche). The wind has a local effect on these oscillations and generates a secondary circulation. Numerical analysis confirmed that the dynamic of the lagoon is mainly controlled by a balance between accelerations, barotropic pressure gradients, and bed and wind stresses, and highlighted that the surface seiche is one of the mechanisms responsible for driving residual currents. The employed 2D-horizontal model of lagoon hydrodynamics, forced with tides only at the basin boundary, reproduced the natural mode oscillation period of 0.5 h of the basin. Besides, stronger seiches were simulated by strength and variability in the wind field, in close agreement with the measured strong seiche and wind data. Our study evaluated the accuracy of the description of the seiche and wind effects in the formulation of a plane 2D model. The 5 min time step of our monitoring was, however, too large to quantify accurately the relationship between residual seiche-induced circulation and wind stress. Simulation results indicate that the wind variations at the time scale of minutes could affect the strength of the oscillation. Nevertheless, this variability had insignificant effect on the frequency, suggesting that the oscillatory response is predominantly linear. This analysis shows that tidal, atmospheric and seiche forcing mechanisms are responsible for the circulation patterns of these small Mediterranean wetland areas, and generate water level oscillations with specific frequencies but with amplitudes of the same order.
|Titolo:||Tidal, seiche and Wind Dynamics in a Small Lagoon in the Mediterranean Sea|
|Parole Chiave:||lagoon modeling ; environmental monitoring ; shallow water ; tide dynamics ; seiche ; wind-driven flow|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore AGR/08 - Idraulica Agraria e Sistemazioni Idraulico-Forestali|
|Data di pubblicazione:||ago-2007|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.ecss.2007.03.022|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|