Brain development is an organized, but constantly adaptive, process in which genetic and epigenetic signals allow neurons to differentiate, to migrate, and to develop correct connections. Gender specific prenatal sex hormone milieu participates in the dimorphic development of many neuronal networks. Environmental cues may interfere with these developmental programs, producing adverse outcomes. Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic/antiandrogenic endocrine disruptor widely diffused in the environment, produces adverse effects at levels below the acceptable daily intake. This review analyzes the recent literature on the consequences of perinatal exposure to BPA environmental doses on the development of a dimorphic brain. The BPA interference with the development and function of the neuroendocrine hypothalamus and of the nuclei controlling energy balance, and with the hippocampal memory processing is also discussed. The detrimental action of BPA appears complex, involving different hormonal and epigenetic pathways activated, often in a dimorphic way, within clearcut susceptibility windows. To date, discrepancies in experimental approaches and in related outcomes make unfeasible to translate the available information into clear dose–response models for human risk assessment. Evaluation of BPA brain levels in relation to the appearance of adverse effects in future basic studies will certainly give better definition of the warning threshold for human health.
|Titolo:||Bisphenol A interaction with brain development and functions|
NEGRI CESI, PAOLA (Corresponding)
|Parole Chiave:||Bisphenol A; Brain differentiation; Developmental exposure; Dimorphism; Environmental dose; Neuroendocrine targets; Toxicology; Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis; Chemical Health and Safety; Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/09 - Fisiologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||1-apr-2015|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1177/1559325815590394|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|