Objectives: Primary headache syndromes (eg, migraine and tension-type headache [TTH]) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are prevalent in childhood and may cause impairment in social and academic functioning. We tested if ADHD or its symptoms are associated with specific headache syndromes or with headache frequency. Study design: Cross-sectional epidemiological study with direct interviews to parents and teachers using validated and standardized questionnaires. Setting: Populational study. Participants: Children aged 5 to 11 years (n = 1856). Outcome measures: Prevalence of ADHD as a function of headache status in crude and adjusted analyses. Results: The prevalence of migraine was 3.76%. Infrequent episodic TTH occurred in 2.3% of the sample, and frequent episodic TTH occurred in 1.6%. The prevalence of ADHD was 6.1%. The prevalence of ADHD was not significantly different by headache category. For hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms, the prevalence was 8.1% in children without headache, 23.7% in children with migraine (relative risk [RR], 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-4.2), and 18.4% in children with probable migraine (RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.2). For inattention, no significant differences were seen. In multivariate analyses, ADHD or inattention symptoms were not predicted by headache subtypes or headache frequency. Hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms were significantly associated with any headache (P < 0.01), TTH (P < 0.01), or migraine (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Migraine and TTH are not comorbid to ADHD overall, but are comorbid to hyperactive-impulsive behavior. Providers and educators should be aware of the association.
|Titolo:||Migraine, tension-type headache, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in childhood: a population-based study|
|Parole Chiave:||pediatric headache; migraine; pediatric; epidemiology; prevalence studies|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore M-PSI/08 - Psicologia Clinica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||set-2010|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.3810/pgm.2010.09.2197|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|