Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a heterogeneous syndrome that lacks definitive treatment. The cornerstone of management is sound intensive care treatment and early anticipatory ventilation support. A mechanical ventilation strategy aiming at optimal alveolar recruitment, judicious use of positive end-respiratory pressure (PEEP) and low tidal volumes (VT) remains the mainstay for managing this lung disease. Several treatments have been proposed in rescue settings, but confirmation is needed from large controlled clinical trials before they be recommended for routine care. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is suggested with a cautious approach and a strict selection of candidates for treatment. Mild and moderate cases can be efficiently treated by NIV, but this is contra-indicated with severe ARDS. The extra-corporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2 R), used as an integrated tool with conventional ventilation, is playing a new role in adjusting respiratory acidosis and CO2. The proposed benefits of ECCO2 R over extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) consist in a reduction of artificial surface contact, avoidance of pump-related side effects and technical complications, as well as lower costs. The advantages and disadvantages of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) are better recognized today and iNO is not recommended for ARDS and acute lung injury (ALI) in children and adults because iNO results in a transient improvement in oxygenation but does not reduce mortality, and may be harmful. Several trials have found no clinical benefit from various surfactant supplementation methods in adult patients with ARDS. However, studies which are still controversial have shown that surfactant supplementation can improve oxygenation and decrease mortality in pediatric and adolescent patients in specific conditions and, when applied in different modes and doses, also in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of preemies. Management of ARDS remains supportive, aimed at improving gas exchange and preventing complications. Progress in the treatment of ARDS must be addressed toward the new paradigm of the disease pathobiology to be applied to the disease definition and to predict the treatment outcome, also with the perspective to develop predictive and personalized medicine that highlights new and challenging opportunities in terms of benefit for patient's safety and doctor's responsibility, with further medico-legal implication.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome in the pediatric age: an update on advanced treatment / G.A. Marraro, C. Chen, M.A. Piga, Y. Qian, C. Spada, U. Genovese. - In: ZHONGGUO DANGDAI ERKE ZAZHI. - ISSN 1008-8830. - 16:5(2014 May), pp. 437-447.
|Titolo:||Acute respiratory distress syndrome in the pediatric age: an update on advanced treatment|
GENOVESE, UMBERTO ROSARIO (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||Acute respiratory distress syndrome; Child; Extra-corporeal carbon dioxide removal; High-frequency oscillatory ventilation; Inhaled nitric oxide; Non-invasive ventilation; Protective lung strategy; Recruiting maneuver; Surfactant|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/43 - Medicina Legale|
Settore MED/41 - Anestesiologia
|Data di pubblicazione:||mag-2014|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.7499/j.issn.1008-8830.2014.05.001|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|
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