Recent technological developments (e.g. PET) have given us insight into the brain mechanisms of cognitive processes, i.a. attention. The attention system has a basis of neural networks with a different location for separate subsystems i.e. orienting, detective-executive and vigilance attention networks. Their complex interplay is responsible for the proper functioning of attention governing all cognitive processes from perception to decision making and execution. Driving a vehicle imposes especially high demands on the attention system. Variable road conditions might expose this system to entirely different demands. Monotonous driving on a highway and intense town traffic are typical examples. Additionally the time of day factor complicates the issue. The visual field undergoes specific changes as result of attention functioning. Stressful situations resulting in domination of the executive attention subsystem may cause narrowing of the visual field (tunnel vision). This in turn may lead to danger due to our omitting important information appearing in the peripheral part of the visual field. The examples presented below allow us to conclude that driving a car exposes the attention system to tasks surpassing its capabilities, are phylogenetically adjusted to the natural speed of changes in natural environment conditions. The scale and importance of the problem make it one of the most important challenges for contemporary ergonomics.
|Titolo:||Nurses'work schedules, work content, and well-being in seven European countries: comparative study within the NEXT project|
|Parole Chiave:||nurses; shift-work; working conditions; job satisfaction; psychosocial factors|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/44 - Medicina del Lavoro|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2004|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|