The Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) is characterized by thrombosis and pregnancy loss, clinical events mediated by pathogenic anti-phospholipid autoantibodies (aPL). β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) is the major autoantigens recognized by aPL. β2GPI is a cationic protein that binds to negatively charged surfaces such as those of apoptotic cells. This feature may lead to two major events: i) immunization with β2GPI fosters the Fc-receptor-mediated uptake by antigen presenting cells of apoptotic material decorated with β2GPIand the activation ofβ2GPI-specific T cells which in turn provide help to β2GPI-specific B cells for the production of anti-β2GPI; ii) apoptotic bodies decorated with β2GPI can be opsonized by anti-β2GPI and shifted towards a pro-inflammatory clearance by macrophages; epitope spread can occur with the generation of autoimmunity against nuclear autoantigens. In the presence of a predisposing genetic background and of a particular cytokine environment (type I interferons), the sequential emergence of autoantibodies can evolve into overt clinical disease. The spectrum of clinical phenotypes of the patients can be modulated by several factors affecting the pathogenicity of anti-β2GPI (e.g. domain specificity). We conclude that dying cells may play a dual role in APS: (I) as immunogen for the induction of aPL (etiology) and (II) as targets of aPL for the chronification of inflammation and the development of autoimmune diseases (pathology).

Antiphospholipid antibodies mediate autoimmunity against dying cells [Recensione] / L. Andreoli, M. Fredi, C. Nalli, F. Franceschini, P.L. Meroni, A. Tincani. - In: AUTOIMMUNITY. - ISSN 0891-6934. - 46:5(2013), pp. 302-306. [10.3109/08916934.2013.783025]

Antiphospholipid antibodies mediate autoimmunity against dying cells

P.L. Meroni;
2013

Abstract

The Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) is characterized by thrombosis and pregnancy loss, clinical events mediated by pathogenic anti-phospholipid autoantibodies (aPL). β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) is the major autoantigens recognized by aPL. β2GPI is a cationic protein that binds to negatively charged surfaces such as those of apoptotic cells. This feature may lead to two major events: i) immunization with β2GPI fosters the Fc-receptor-mediated uptake by antigen presenting cells of apoptotic material decorated with β2GPIand the activation ofβ2GPI-specific T cells which in turn provide help to β2GPI-specific B cells for the production of anti-β2GPI; ii) apoptotic bodies decorated with β2GPI can be opsonized by anti-β2GPI and shifted towards a pro-inflammatory clearance by macrophages; epitope spread can occur with the generation of autoimmunity against nuclear autoantigens. In the presence of a predisposing genetic background and of a particular cytokine environment (type I interferons), the sequential emergence of autoantibodies can evolve into overt clinical disease. The spectrum of clinical phenotypes of the patients can be modulated by several factors affecting the pathogenicity of anti-β2GPI (e.g. domain specificity). We conclude that dying cells may play a dual role in APS: (I) as immunogen for the induction of aPL (etiology) and (II) as targets of aPL for the chronification of inflammation and the development of autoimmune diseases (pathology).
Anti-domain antibodies; Antiphospholipid antibodies; Antiphospholipid syndrome; Autoantibodies; Beta2glycoprotein I; Systemic lupus erythematosus; Animals; Antibodies, Antiphospholipid; Apoptosis; Autoantibodies; Autoimmunity; Cell Death; Disease Models, Animal; Humans; beta 2-Glycoprotein I; Immunology and Allergy; Immunology
Settore MED/16 - Reumatologia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/258650
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