Since the late 1980s some publications have proposed that antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) may have some relationship with infertility, considering reported deleterious effects that aPL exert on trophoblast proliferation and growth. Although not included in current classification criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome, many physicians investigate for aPL in patients with a history of infertility, including antibodies not listed in classification criteria, and most of those patients will receive anticoagulant therapy if any of those antibodies have a result considered positive. A review of literature was conducted searching for studies that investigated the association of aPL and infertility and if aPL positivity alters in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. The definition of infertility, routine work-up to exclude other causes of infertility, definition of IVF failure as inclusion criteria and control populations were heterogeneous among studies. Most of them enrolled women over 40 years of age, and exclusion of other confounding factors was also inconsistent. Of 29 studies that assessed aPL positivity rates in infertile women, the majority had small sample sizes, implying a lack of power, and 13 (44.8%) reported higher frequency of aPL in infertile patients compared to controls, but most of them investigated a panel of non-criteria aPL tests, whose clinical significance is highly controversial. Only two studies investigated all three criteria tests, and medium-high titer of anticardiolipin cut-off conforming to international guidelines was used in one study. Considering IVF outcome, there was also disparity in this definition: few studies assessed the live birth rate, others the implantation rate. Of 14 publications that addressed the relationship between aPL and IVF outcome, only two described a detrimental effect of these autoantibodies. In conclusion, available data do not support an association between aPL and infertility, and aPL positivity does not seem to influence IVF outcome. Well-designed clinical studies recruiting women with a clear diagnosis of infertility and a high-risk aPL profile should be performed to test whether clinically relevant aPL do-or not-exert an effect on human fertility.
|Titolo:||Antiphospholipid antibodies and infertility|
CHIGHIZOLA, CECILIA BEATRICE (Primo)
|Parole Chiave:||Antiphospholipid antibodies; IVF; anticardiolipin antibodies; infertility; in vitro fertilization; lupus anticoagulant|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/16 - Reumatologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||ott-2014|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1177/0961203314529171|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|