In Europe, plants are responsible for many animal poisoning cases. Frequent culprits include Nerium oleander (oleander) containing cardiac glycosides, Taxus baccata (european yew) containing taxine alkaloids, Rhododendron spp. containing grayanotoxins, Allium spp. containing organosulphur compounds and plants containing cyanogenic glycosides. Livestock and horses are particularly at risk of being poisoned by Datura stramonium (Jimson weed) containing tropane alkaloids, Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) containing hypericin, which is a photodynamic toxin, Quercus spp. (oak) containing tannins and tannin metabolites, Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) containing the toxalbumin robin and Senecio spp. (ragworts and groundsels) containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Another plant that is found throughout Europe and may pose a hazard to ruminants and horses is Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern) containing two poisonous agents: ptaquiloside and the enzyme thiaminase. Pets are usually poisoned by house or garden plants. The list of plants commonly responsible for pet poisoning includes Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley) containing cardiac glycosides, Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia) containing diterpene esters and Ricinus communis (castor bean) containing the toxalbumin ricin. Several house plants that are very common such as Anthurium spp. (anthurium), Dieffenbachia spp. (dumb cane), Philodendron spp. (philodendron) Spathiphyllum spp. (peace lily), and Zantedeschia spp. (calla lily) should also be included in the list as they contain insoluble oxalates. Cycas revoluta (sago palm) may also represent a threat for pet health, particularly in the case of dogs. The compounds believed to be responsible for toxicity are glycoside cycasin, an aminoacid (b-methylamino-L-alanine), and an unidentified high molecular weight compound. Ingestion of lilies of genera Lilium and Hemerocallis, whose toxic principle is still unknown, can cause renal failure in cats.
|Titolo:||Epidemiology of animal intoxication by plant toxins in Europe|
CALONI, FRANCESCA (Primo)
CORTINOVIS, CRISTINA (Ultimo)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2014|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore VET/07 - Farmacologia e Tossicologia Veterinaria|
|Citazione:||Epidemiology of animal intoxication by plant toxins in Europe / F. Caloni, C. Cortinovis. ((Intervento presentato al convegno The World Plant Toxin Forum tenutosi a Vienna nel 2014.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||14 - Intervento a convegno non pubblicato|