Abstract Actin is a globular multifunctional protein present in almost all eukaryotic cells, where it plays a major role in the formation of microfilaments, one of the principal cytoskeleton’s components, and thin filaments, belonging to the contractile apparatus in the muscular cells. Actin’s mass is about 42 kDa and can be present as a free monomer (G-actin, globular) or as a part of a linear monomer (F-actin, filamentous). Actin plays an important role in the embryogenesis, in wound healing, in the invasiveness of tumor cells and in their gene expression. Osteocalcin is a non-collagenous protein found in bone and dentin, secreted by osteoblasts. It is monomeric protein of 5.8 kDa, highly conserved in all vertebrates. Osteocalcin has an important role on bone mineralization and calcium ion homeostasis. Moreover, recent data suggest a possible role of osteocalcin in male infertility, probably related to the enhancement of testosterone synthesis. The aim of this thesis was to analyse these two very different proteins, with particular attention to their chemical-physical and functional properties, in order to see if they are related each other in a possible way. The study has been conducted by continuously looking at OMIM, GeneCard and Pubmed, in order to find recent and valuables evidences. Particularly, papers relating to the main post-translational modifications have been also taken into account. The first point in common which has arisen during such analysis is that both actin and osteocalcin show key modifications during any stage of the growth of Homo sapiens starting from the pre-natal phase until senility. Several of these post-translational modifications were related to gender differences. Other findings were related to the fact that both proteins undergo different modifications based on ethnicity, and also linked with nutrition, indeed very relevant to the physical function of both proteins. Subsequently, it was observed that both proteins undergo remarkable changes in at least four different pathological states (vascular diseases, diabetes, renal disease and infertility). Moreover, pH seemed to influence in the same way various post-translational modifications of both proteins. Finally, I have found that several xenobiotics, such as some isoflavones (i.e. genistein) or other compunds (cytochalasin D and latrinculine B) may cause changes in the cytoskeleton or may interact with actin-binding proteins and be involved in the osteocalcin gene expression.

PARALLEL BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ACTIN AND OSTEOCALCIN / C.a. De Caro ; tutor: A. Mosca, G. Tedeschi ; coordinator: F. Bonomi. - : . Università degli Studi di Milano, 2014 Dec 18. ((27. ciclo, Anno Accademico 2014. [10.13130/de-caro-claudia-antonella_phd2014-12-18].

PARALLEL BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ACTIN AND OSTEOCALCIN

C.A. DE CARO
2014

Abstract

Abstract Actin is a globular multifunctional protein present in almost all eukaryotic cells, where it plays a major role in the formation of microfilaments, one of the principal cytoskeleton’s components, and thin filaments, belonging to the contractile apparatus in the muscular cells. Actin’s mass is about 42 kDa and can be present as a free monomer (G-actin, globular) or as a part of a linear monomer (F-actin, filamentous). Actin plays an important role in the embryogenesis, in wound healing, in the invasiveness of tumor cells and in their gene expression. Osteocalcin is a non-collagenous protein found in bone and dentin, secreted by osteoblasts. It is monomeric protein of 5.8 kDa, highly conserved in all vertebrates. Osteocalcin has an important role on bone mineralization and calcium ion homeostasis. Moreover, recent data suggest a possible role of osteocalcin in male infertility, probably related to the enhancement of testosterone synthesis. The aim of this thesis was to analyse these two very different proteins, with particular attention to their chemical-physical and functional properties, in order to see if they are related each other in a possible way. The study has been conducted by continuously looking at OMIM, GeneCard and Pubmed, in order to find recent and valuables evidences. Particularly, papers relating to the main post-translational modifications have been also taken into account. The first point in common which has arisen during such analysis is that both actin and osteocalcin show key modifications during any stage of the growth of Homo sapiens starting from the pre-natal phase until senility. Several of these post-translational modifications were related to gender differences. Other findings were related to the fact that both proteins undergo different modifications based on ethnicity, and also linked with nutrition, indeed very relevant to the physical function of both proteins. Subsequently, it was observed that both proteins undergo remarkable changes in at least four different pathological states (vascular diseases, diabetes, renal disease and infertility). Moreover, pH seemed to influence in the same way various post-translational modifications of both proteins. Finally, I have found that several xenobiotics, such as some isoflavones (i.e. genistein) or other compunds (cytochalasin D and latrinculine B) may cause changes in the cytoskeleton or may interact with actin-binding proteins and be involved in the osteocalcin gene expression.
MOSCA, ANDREA
BONOMI, FRANCESCO
ABSTRACT; ABSTRACT
Settore BIO/10 - Biochimica
PARALLEL BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ACTIN AND OSTEOCALCIN / C.a. De Caro ; tutor: A. Mosca, G. Tedeschi ; coordinator: F. Bonomi. - : . Università degli Studi di Milano, 2014 Dec 18. ((27. ciclo, Anno Accademico 2014. [10.13130/de-caro-claudia-antonella_phd2014-12-18].
Doctoral Thesis
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Descrizione: study of two proteins such as osteocalcin and actin
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/246963
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