Humans are continuously exposed to a high number of diverse pathogens that induce different types of immune responses. Primary pathogen-specific immune responses generate multiple subsets of memory T cells, which provide protection against secondary infections. In recent years, several novel T cell subsets have been identified and have significantly broadened our knowledge about T cell differentiation and the regulation of immune responses. At the same time the rapidly growing number of incompletely characterized T cell subsets has also generated some controversies. We therefore review here the current knowledge on features and functions of human α/β T cell subsets, focusing on CD4+ T cells classified according to cytokine production and tissue localization. The principal helper and regulatory T cell subsets can be identified by a limited number of relevant surface markers, which are an integral part of the T cell differentiation programs because they are directly induced by the relevant lineage-defining transcription factors. In vivo occurring human T cell subsets can thus be purified directly ex vivo from relevant tissues for molecular and functional studies, and represent not only an ideal model to study T cell differentiation, but they also offer important clinical opportunities. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

The CD4-centered universe of human T cell subsets / J. Geginat, M. Paroni, F. Facciotti, P. Gruarin, I. Kastirr, F. Caprioli, M. Pagani, S. Abrignani. - In: SEMINARS IN IMMUNOLOGY. - ISSN 1044-5323. - 25:4(2013 Nov), pp. 252-262.

The CD4-centered universe of human T cell subsets

J. Geginat;M. Paroni;F. Caprioli;M. Pagani;S. Abrignani
2013

Abstract

Humans are continuously exposed to a high number of diverse pathogens that induce different types of immune responses. Primary pathogen-specific immune responses generate multiple subsets of memory T cells, which provide protection against secondary infections. In recent years, several novel T cell subsets have been identified and have significantly broadened our knowledge about T cell differentiation and the regulation of immune responses. At the same time the rapidly growing number of incompletely characterized T cell subsets has also generated some controversies. We therefore review here the current knowledge on features and functions of human α/β T cell subsets, focusing on CD4+ T cells classified according to cytokine production and tissue localization. The principal helper and regulatory T cell subsets can be identified by a limited number of relevant surface markers, which are an integral part of the T cell differentiation programs because they are directly induced by the relevant lineage-defining transcription factors. In vivo occurring human T cell subsets can thus be purified directly ex vivo from relevant tissues for molecular and functional studies, and represent not only an ideal model to study T cell differentiation, but they also offer important clinical opportunities. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
CD4+ memory T cells; Cytokines; T cell differentiation; Tissue homing
Settore MED/12 - Gastroenterologia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/246089
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