Objective : To provide quantitative information about the facial soft tissue of Italian and Northern Sudanese subjects with Down syndrome by using summary anthropometric measurements. Design, Setting, and Patients : The three-dimensional coordinates of soft tissue facial landmarks were obtained using a computerized digitizer in 54 Italian subjects with Down syndrome (20 females and 34 males, 13 to 52 years), in 64 Northern Sudanese subjects with Down syndrome (18 females and 46 males, 5 to 34 years), and in 578 Italian and 653 Northern Sudanese reference subjects, matched for sex and age. From the landmarks, 16 facial dimensions were calculated. Data from subjects with Down syndrome were compared with those collected from control individuals by computing z scores. Two summary anthropometric measurements for quantifying craniofacial variations were obtained: the mean z score (an index of overall facial size) and its standard deviation, the craniofacial variability index (an index of facial harmony). Results : In subjects with Down syndrome, facial size was significantly smaller and craniofacial variability was significantly greater than in typically developed individuals; 93% of Italian and 81% of Northern Sudanese subjects with Down syndrome had one or both values outside the normal interval. Overall, Italian subjects with Down syndrome differed more from the norm than did those from Northern Sudan. In the Northern Sudanese subjects, the mean z scores and the craniofacial variability index were significantly influenced by age: Older Northern Sudanese subjects with Down syndrome had smaller mean z scores and craniofacial variability index values than younger subjects. Conclusions : The two ethnic groups had different alterations in their soft tissue facial dimensions that were partially influenced by age.
Abnormal variations in the facial soft tissues of individuals with Down Syndrome : Sudan versus Italy / C. Sforza, C. Dolci, C. Dellavia, D. Gibelli, G.M. Tartaglia, F. Elamin. - In: CLEFT PALATE-CRANIOFACIAL JOURNAL. - ISSN 1055-6656. - 52:5(2014 Oct 02), pp. 588-596.
|Titolo:||Abnormal variations in the facial soft tissues of individuals with Down Syndrome : Sudan versus Italy|
GIBELLI, DANIELE MARIA (Penultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||Down syndrome; anthropometry; face; soft tissues; three-dimensional|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/16 - Anatomia Umana|
Settore MED/28 - Malattie Odontostomatologiche
|Data di pubblicazione:||2-ott-2014|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1597/14-082|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|