We present new 3 mm ATCA data of two Class I young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Ophiucus star forming region: Elias29 and WL12. For our analysis we compare them with archival 1.1 mm SMA data. In the (u,v) plane the two sources present a similar behavior: a nearly constant non-zero emission at long baselines, which suggests the presence of an unresolved component and an increase of the fluxes at short baselines, related to the presence of an extended envelope. Our data analysis leads to unusually low values of the spectral index α1.1-3 mm, which may indicate that mm-sized dust grains have already formed both in the envelopes and in the disk-like structures at such early stages. To explore the possible scenarios for the interpretation of the sources we perform a radiative transfer modeling using a Monte Carlo code, in order to take into account possible deviations from the Rayleigh-Jeans and optically thin regimes. Comparison between the model outputs and the observations indicates that dust grains may form aggregates up to millimeter size already in the inner regions of the envelopes of Class I YSOs. Moreover, we conclude that the embedded disk-like structures in our two Class I YSOs are probably very compact, in particular in the case of WL12, with outer radii down to tens of AU.

Grain growth in the envelopes and disks of class 1. protostars / A. Miotello, L. Testi, G. Lodato, L. Ricci, G. Rosotti, K. Brooks, A. Maury, A. Natta. - In: ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS. - ISSN 0004-6361. - 567(2014), pp. A32.1-A32.11. [10.1051/0004-6361/201322945]

Grain growth in the envelopes and disks of class 1. protostars

G. Lodato
Penultimo
;
G. Rosotti;
2014

Abstract

We present new 3 mm ATCA data of two Class I young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Ophiucus star forming region: Elias29 and WL12. For our analysis we compare them with archival 1.1 mm SMA data. In the (u,v) plane the two sources present a similar behavior: a nearly constant non-zero emission at long baselines, which suggests the presence of an unresolved component and an increase of the fluxes at short baselines, related to the presence of an extended envelope. Our data analysis leads to unusually low values of the spectral index α1.1-3 mm, which may indicate that mm-sized dust grains have already formed both in the envelopes and in the disk-like structures at such early stages. To explore the possible scenarios for the interpretation of the sources we perform a radiative transfer modeling using a Monte Carlo code, in order to take into account possible deviations from the Rayleigh-Jeans and optically thin regimes. Comparison between the model outputs and the observations indicates that dust grains may form aggregates up to millimeter size already in the inner regions of the envelopes of Class I YSOs. Moreover, we conclude that the embedded disk-like structures in our two Class I YSOs are probably very compact, in particular in the case of WL12, with outer radii down to tens of AU.
Circumstellar matter; Dust, extinction; Opacity; Protoplanetary disks; Radiative transfer; Stars: protostars
Settore FIS/05 - Astronomia e Astrofisica
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/237819
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