Time is a dimension tightly associated with the biology of living species. There are cycles of varied lengths in biological activities, from very short (ultradian) rhythms to rhythms with a period of approximately one day (circadian) and rhythms with longer cycles, of a week, a month, a season, or even longer. These rhythms are generated by endogenous biological clocks, i.e. time-keeping structures, rather than being passive reactions to external fluctuations. In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the major pacemaker. The pineal gland, which secretes melatonin, is the major pacemaker in other phyla. There also exist biological clocks generating circadian rhythms in peripheral tissues, for example the liver. A series of clock genes generates the rhythm through positive and negative feedback effect of proteins on their own synthesis, and this system oscillates with a circadian period. External factors serve as indicators of the astronomical (solar) time and are called zeitgebers, literally time-givers. Light is the major zeitgeber, which resets daily the SCN circadian clock. In the absence of zeitgebers, the circadian rhythm is said to be free running; it has a period that differs from 24 hours. The SCN, together with peripheral clocks, enables a time-related homeostasis, which can become disorganized in its regulation by external factors (light, social activities, food intake), in the coordination and relative phase position of rhythms, or in other ways. All diseases start with and are related to chronobiological abnormalities.
|Titolo:||Biological rhythms : modifications and pratictal suggestions|
|Data di pubblicazione:||4-apr-2014|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/09 - Medicina Interna|
Settore MED/13 - Endocrinologia
Settore MED/25 - Psichiatria
|Citazione:||Biological rhythms : modifications and pratictal suggestions / C. Maggioni. ((Intervento presentato al 10. convegno Anti-Aging Medicine World Congress tenutosi a Montecarlo Principato di Monaco nel 2012.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||14 - Intervento a convegno non pubblicato|