CdCl2 salt is widely used in exposure oriented studies, while the biological exposure of Cadmium (Cd) occurs mostly through diet. Hence, we designed a in vivo imaging methodology with sexually immature male ERE-Luc reporter mice to test the estrogen-like (EL) effects of Cd as a natural component in wheat and flax bread based diets (containing 17.57 and 49.22 ug/kg Cd concentrations respectively) and CdCl2 per-oral dose of 1 ug/kg/bw/day. Total exposure of ingested and % bioaccumulation of Cd in selected organs were estimated as 547 ng (4.4%), 776 ng (0.3%) and 2131.8 ng (0.1%) corresponding to CdCl2, wheat and flax bread based diet treatments respectively. Cd from CdCl2 bioaccumulated more readily, despite the exposure of Cd is higher with bread based diets. Longitudinal in vivo imaging did not reveal significant changes in luciferase activity. White adipose tissue (WAT) and prostate were identified as novel target organs of Cd. Indeed, the rest of the observed EL effects, endogenous target gene expression and necropsy findings are not consistent to any particular organ or treatment. This implies that, the observed EL effects due to low doses of Cd (either from CdCl2 or dietary form) occur only as subtle changes at the molecular level, but inadequate to cause significant changes at the anatomo-pathological level during the 21 day exposure period. The study demonstrates the sensitivity of the methodology to assess EL effects of food embedded Cd and underlines the limitations of directly extrapolating the results of suspected chemicals in their pure form to dietary exposure scenarios.
Sexually immature male ERE-Luc reporter mice to assess low dose estrogen-like effects of CdCl2 versus dietary Cd / B. Ramachandran, N. Rizzi, A. Maggi. - In: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND MOLECULAR IMAGING. - ISSN 2160-8407. - 4:3(2014), pp. 270-282.
|Titolo:||Sexually immature male ERE-Luc reporter mice to assess low dose estrogen-like effects of CdCl2 versus dietary Cd|
RAMACHANDRAN, BALAJI (Primo)
RIZZI, NICOLETTA (Secondo)
MAGGI, ADRIANA CATERINA (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||CdCl2 ; Reporter mice ; bioavailability ; dietary Cd ; endocrine disruptors ; estrogenicity ; in vivo imaging|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2014|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|