Aim of this study is the investigation of the potentialities and limits of the new 3D technologies to be used for documentation, archiving and imaging in the context of Physical and Forensic Anthropology. The widest possible variety of anthropological material was digitally acquired: from skeletal remains into an archaeological site, skeletal elements acquired in the laboratory, to living subjects. The most effective "techniques" for the acquisition of different types of materials were studied and the limits of the scan based on the intrinsic characteristics of the material acquired and the type of instrument used were checked. The Laser Scanner technology has proved to be the most suitable and fast for the acquisition of Skull and Mandible on which to conduct studies about biological profile and identification. The 3D models acquired using Laser Scanner have been used to test a technique of craniofacial Superimposition. The results show that the use of the 3D model of the skull facilitates the process of superimposition; the persistence of a high percentage of false positives indicates that this technique should not be used to identify, it could rather be utilized to exclude. The models of the skull and mandible acquired with 3D laser scanners have been tested as a base to conduct facial reconstructions in the virtual environment. The facial reconstructions performed by two inter-operators were compared using a colorimetric map that has detected good homogeneity in morphometric terms in specific regions of the face but also discrepancies partly due to the different locations of some landmarks made by the two operators, partly due to the shortage of landmarks. New CT technologies generation were also tested: the possibility of age determination from dental volumes was studied with the cone-beam CT technology. Through the use of free software it has been possible to obtain the necessary volumes to calculate the relationship between the volume of the pulp and the volume of its corresponding tooth and carry out the study of the regression. The coefficient of correlation and determination found are comparable to those conducted by other authors using the most expensive equipment; the equation obtained still shows, however, lack of precision of the estimation age. A study that shows that the use of CBCT technology can improve the investigation of morphological stab wounds on cancellous bones was conducted. Conversely metric analysis of the lesions seems not to be very reliable. The acquisition of stab wound with pQCT technology was conducted in a real case: a 3D model was created, in order to allow the operator to define the volume of the lack of tissues related to the lesion. The application of pQCT scan proved to be a potentially useful tool for assessment of bone trauma. As regards the antemortem injury, the CBCT technology was used in the evaluation of the internal structure of the callus. The results could lay the foundation for new perspectives on bone callus evaluation and aging with cone-beam CT technique. In conclusion this study has showed and tested the various applications of 3D technologies in Physical and Forensic Anthropology, defining their limits and in awareness of the importance of the irreplaceable critical judgment of the operator.
NUOVE TECNOLOGIE NELL¿AMBITO DELL¿ANTROPOLOGIA FISICA E FORENSE:IMAGING E MODELLAZIONE 3D / D..a. Gaudio ; tutor: C. Cattaneo ; coordinatore: N. Saino. - Milano : Università degli studi di Milano. Università degli Studi di Milano, 2014 Mar 05. ((26. ciclo, Anno Accademico 2013.
|Titolo:||NUOVE TECNOLOGIE NELL¿AMBITO DELL¿ANTROPOLOGIA FISICA E FORENSE:IMAGING E MODELLAZIONE 3D|
|Supervisori e coordinatori interni:||SAINO, NICOLA|
|Data di pubblicazione:||5-mar-2014|
|Parole Chiave:||forensic anthropology ; physical anthropology ; laser scanner ; computed tomography ; imaging 3D|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/08 - Antropologia|
|Citazione:||NUOVE TECNOLOGIE NELL¿AMBITO DELL¿ANTROPOLOGIA FISICA E FORENSE:IMAGING E MODELLAZIONE 3D / D..a. Gaudio ; tutor: C. Cattaneo ; coordinatore: N. Saino. - Milano : Università degli studi di Milano. Università degli Studi di Milano, 2014 Mar 05. ((26. ciclo, Anno Accademico 2013.|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.13130/gaudio-daniel-angelo_phd2014-03-05|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Tesi di dottorato|