Introduction. Agrochemicals, short from agricultural chemicals, is a term used for various chemical products which are commonly used in agriculture. The most famous representative example of agrochemicals are pesticides, but it may also include fertilizers, hormones or similar chemical growth agents, as well as raw animal manure. Even as an active substance is authorized in European Union, and products containing this active substance are authorized and marketed, there is still a need for risk assessment to communicate and to manage risk with regard to the different risk groups, workers and the general population as a whole. Overall Goal. The goal of this effort is the creation of Exposure and Risk Profiles, as a reliable, scientifically based way to forecast pesticide exposure and workers’ risk in typical scenarios from a minimum set of available information, aimed at performing a preliminary risk assessment even without the need of “in field” measurements. Methodology. To reach our goal we have conducted a wide published literature search to define the process of pesticide application and the most common exposure determinants. Then we conducted two real-life field studies on exposure to pesticide in different use scenarios in the vineyards of the Region of Lombardy (one study in the framework of the ACROPOLIS project of the European Union, and another financed by INAIL). We collected field information in the form of a structured questionnaire, with a goal to record the variables previously identified as important modifiers of pesticide exposure. Also we collected exposure measurements, using two methodologies: skin pads and whole-body method, following in principle the OECD guidelines. Finally, we used the results from the field to develop a method that allows for a re-use of field data in risk assessment, by creating a Risk Assessment Scheme which can be used to assess risk in the field, without doing any measurements. Results. We report the main phases of pesticide work and variables, together with their influence, as a result of our wide literature search. Also we report the results of two field studies, first on 7 workers applying Tebuconazole on 12 work-days, and second on 28 workers applying Mancozeb on 38 work-days. Finally, we show a proposed approach to using field measurements from our study in the Region of Lombardy to perform future risk-assessment in one defined scenario of closed and filtered tractors. Discussion and Conclusions. Our work has tackled the problem of risk assessment for pesticide exposure in agriculture, which has been unfairly neglected in the past years. Through the use of literature data, field studies and computational modelling, we have managed to analyze and summarize the characteristics of pesticide application in agriculture, explore the real-life field conditions during pesticide application in vineyards in Italy, collect the field measurements necessary to do exposure and risk assessment, and to develop a method to use the data collected to produce a Risk Assessment Scheme. The study results and the above mentioned tool represent a step forward towards rapid, simple and scientifically based risk assessment in real-life conditions of pesticide application in agriculture.
EXPLORING NOVEL APPROACHES TO PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK ASSESSMENT / S. Mandic-rajcevic ; tutor: C. Colosio, F.M. Rubino; coordinatore: G. Costa. - Milano : Università degli studi di Milano. DIPARTIMENTO DI SCIENZE DELLA SALUTE, 2014 Feb 25. ((26. ciclo, Anno Accademico 2013.
|Titolo:||EXPLORING NOVEL APPROACHES TO PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK ASSESSMENT|
|Supervisori e coordinatori interni:||COSTA, GIOVANNI|
|Data di pubblicazione:||25-feb-2014|
|Parole Chiave:||pesticides ; exposure assessment ; risk assessment ; environmental monitoring ; computational modelling|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/44 - Medicina del Lavoro|
|Citazione:||EXPLORING NOVEL APPROACHES TO PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK ASSESSMENT / S. Mandic-rajcevic ; tutor: C. Colosio, F.M. Rubino; coordinatore: G. Costa. - Milano : Università degli studi di Milano. DIPARTIMENTO DI SCIENZE DELLA SALUTE, 2014 Feb 25. ((26. ciclo, Anno Accademico 2013.|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.13130/mandic-rajcevic-stefan_phd2014-02-25|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Tesi di dottorato|