It has been shown in the literature that myocytes isolated from the ventricular walls at various intramural depths have different action potential durations (APDs). When these myocytes are embedded in the ventricular wall, their inhomogeneous properties affect the sequence of repolarization and the actual distribution of the APDs in the entire wall. In this article, we implement a mathematical model to simulate the combined effect of (a) the non-homogeneous intrinsic membrane properties (in particular the non-homogeneous APDs) and (b) the electrotonic currents that modulate the APDs when the myocytes are embedded in the ventricular myocardium. In particular, we study the effect of (a) and (b) on the excitation and repolarization sequences and on the distribution of APDs in the ventricles. We implement a Monodomain tissue representation that includes orthotropic anisotropy, transmural fiber rotation and homogeneous or heterogeneous transmural intrinsic membrane properties, modeled according to the phase I Luo-Rudy membrane ionic model. Three-dimensional simulations are performed in a cartesian slab with a parallel finite element solver employing structured isoparametric trilinear finite elements in space and a semi-implicit adaptive method in time. Simulations of excitation and repolarization sequences elicited by epicardial or endocardial pacing show that in a homogeneous slab the repolarization pathways approximately follow the activation sequence. Conversely, in the heterogeneous cases considered in this study, we observed two repolarization wavefronts that started from the epi and the endocardial faces respectively and collided in the thickness of the wall and in one case an additional repolarization wave starting from an intramural site. Introducing the heterogeneities along the transmural epi-endocardial direction affected both the repolarization sequence and the APD dispersion, but these effects were clearly discernible only in transmural planes. By contrast, in planes parallel to epi- and endocardium the APD distribution remained remarkably similar to that observed in the homogeneous model. Therefore, the patterns of the repolarization sequence and APD dispersion on the epicardial surface (or any other intramural surface parallel to it) do not reveal the uniform transmural heterogeneity. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|Titolo:||Effects of transmural electrical heterogeneities and electrotonic interactions on the dispersion of cardiac repolarization and action potential duration : A simulation study|
PAVARINO, LUCA FRANCO (Secondo)
|Parole Chiave:||electrical heterogeneity; myocardial anisotropy; excitation and repolarization processes; action potential duration; cardiac monodomain models; reaction-diffusion equations; parallel numerical simulations|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MAT/08 - Analisi Numerica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2006|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.mbs.2006.06.002|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|