Cocaine and its metabolites are the prevalent psychotropic substances in aquatic environment. However, to date the knowledge on their adverse effects to non-target organisms is inadequate. The aims of this study were to investigate sub-lethal effects induced by the ecgonine methyl ester (EME) to the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha and to compare its toxicity to that by benzoylecgonine (BE), the other main cocaine metabolite. EME sub-lethal effects were investigated by 14 days in-vivo exposures and a multi-biomarker approach. Slight variations in biomarker responses were found at 0.15 μg/L treatment. 0.5 μg/L EME treatment induced destabilization of lysosome membranes, an overall inactivation of defense enzymes, increases in lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and DNA fragmentation, but no variations in fixed genetic damage. The use of a biomarker response index (BRI) showed that at 0.5 μg/L both cocaine metabolites had the same toxicity to zebra mussels specimens.
Adverse effects induced by ecgonine methyl ester to the zebra mussel: A comparison with the benzoylecgonine / M. Parolini, A. Binelli. - In: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION. - ISSN 0269-7491. - 182(2013), pp. 371-378.
|Titolo:||Adverse effects induced by ecgonine methyl ester to the zebra mussel: A comparison with the benzoylecgonine|
|Parole Chiave:||Biomarkers ; Cocaine metabolites ; Dreissena polymorpha ; Ecgonine methyl ester ; Illicit drugs|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/07 - Ecologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2013|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.07.038|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|