Reticulocytes are young red blood cells which develop from erythroblasts and circulate in the bloodstream for about 1-4 days before maturing into erythrocytes. With the introduction of reticulocyte count in equations and statistical models for detecting suspected blood doping, its application to sports medicine has attracted growing interest in reticulocyte behavior during training and competition seasons in athletes and experimental blood doping treatment in healthy volunteers. An update on recent publications is therefore needed to improve the interpretation of reticulocyte analysis and its variability in sportsmen. Reticulocyte count constitutes a robust parameter during the preanalytical phase, but cell stability can be assured only if blood samples are kept at constantly cold temperatures (4 degrees C) and test results will differ depending on the blood analyzer system used. Marked intraindividual variability is the principal finding to be evaluated when exercise-induced changes are observed or illicit procedures suspected. Furthermore, reticulocyte variability is greater than that of other hematological parameters such as hemoglobin or hematocrit. Ideally, any variation should be interpreted against long-term time series for the individual athlete: values obtained from large athlete cohorts ought to be used only for extrapolating outliers that deserve further examination. Reticulocyte distribution in athletes is similar to that found in the general population, and a gender effect in some sports disciplines or selected athlete groups may be seen. Reticulocyte variability is strongly influenced by seasonal factors linked to training and competition schedules and by the type of sports discipline. Published experimental data have confirmed the high sensitivity of reticulocyte analysis in identifying abnormal bone marrow stimulation by either erythropoietin administration or blood withdrawal and reinfusion.
|Titolo:||Reticulocytes in sports medicine: an update|
BANFI, GIUSEPPE (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||Analytical variability; Antidoping setting; Gender; OFF score; Preanalytical phase; Sport discipline|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/12 - Biochimica Clinica e Biologia Molecolare Clinica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2013|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/B978-0-12-405211-6.00005-X|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|