Altered blood chemistry, acid-base and electrolyte are suggested determinants of sleep disturbance, with frequent arousal at high altitude even in well and long-trained altitude marathon runners. In this sample of experienced altitude marathon runners with maximal aerobic power at sea level of 61.4 ± 2.7 ml/kg−1·min−1 we found that pO2 and percent of oxygen saturation (%SO2) were lower at 2050 m and 3480 m than at sea level; pO2 was higher after 38 - 41 hours than after 30 - 31 hours of acclimatization at 3480 m (P < 0.05). After ascent to 3480 m %SO2 decreased (P < 0.003). Compared to sea level values, pH increased at high altitude (P < 0.05) consistent with changes in pCO2 and [HCO3-] (P < 0.05). Nocturnal %SpaO2 at a sleeping altitude of 3480 m was lower (P < 0.05) than at sea level. At high altitude, the percent of wake (W) time and delay falling asleep (DFA) increased, whereas non-rapid eye movement sleep (N-REM), REM sleep and total sleep time (TST) decreased (P < 0.05). Simple regression analysis disclosed a significant correlation between the changes in TST and the percent of REM sleep and the changes in %SpaO2 recorded during sleep (P < 0.05). Simple regression analysis showed a positive correlation between the changes in pO2 at higher altitude and the percent of W and of TST (P < 0.05). The changes in pO2, tCO2 and [HCO3-] correlated negatively and significantly with the percent of REM sleep changes at high altitude (P < 0.05). The TST changes at high altitude correlated positively with the changes in pO2 and pH and correlated negatively with the changes in %SO2, pCO2, tCO2, and [HCO3-] (P < 0.05). The changes in the percent of W at high altitude correlated significantly and positively with the changes in bases excess [BE] at high altitude (P < 0.05). The changes in the percent of REM sleep correlated significantly and positively with the changes in [iCa++] and [BE] and negatively with the changes in buffered bases [BB] and [BEeffective] (P < 0.05). The change in the percent of NREM + REM sleep at high altitude correlated significantly and positively with the changes in [BE] and [BB] concentration (P < 0.05). The increase in DFA at high altitude correlated significantly and negatively with the changes in pCO2 and significantly and negatively with the changes in [K+] (P < 0.05). Simple regression analysis demonstrated that the changes in pH at high altitude correlated positively and significantly with the percent of W and the DFA and negatively with the percent of changes in NREM sleep, REM sleep, NREM + REM sleep (P < 0.05). The decrease in the TST at high altitude correlated significantly and negatively with the changes in pCO2, tCO2, [HCO3-]and [K+] (P < 0.05). Our data demonstrate that the arterialized ear lobe techniques we used for evaluating most of the changes in blood chemistry, acid-base, electrolyte and blood lactate metabolism are suitable for clinical and laboratory assessment and are important predictors of the quality and quantity of acclimatization and sleep at high altitude.

Blood Chemistry, Acid- Base, Electrolyte, Blood Lactate Metabolism and Sleep at 3480 m in Mountain Marathon Runners / I. Gritti, C. Mauri, S. Defendi, D. Cesana, F. Consonni, A. Dolci, S. Luoni. - In: JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCE. - ISSN 2160-5866. - 3:1(2013 Feb), pp. 13-25. [10.4236/jbbs.2013.31003]

Blood Chemistry, Acid- Base, Electrolyte, Blood Lactate Metabolism and Sleep at 3480 m in Mountain Marathon Runners

I. Gritti
Primo
;
C. Mauri
Secondo
;
S. Defendi;A. Dolci;
2013-02

Abstract

Altered blood chemistry, acid-base and electrolyte are suggested determinants of sleep disturbance, with frequent arousal at high altitude even in well and long-trained altitude marathon runners. In this sample of experienced altitude marathon runners with maximal aerobic power at sea level of 61.4 ± 2.7 ml/kg−1·min−1 we found that pO2 and percent of oxygen saturation (%SO2) were lower at 2050 m and 3480 m than at sea level; pO2 was higher after 38 - 41 hours than after 30 - 31 hours of acclimatization at 3480 m (P < 0.05). After ascent to 3480 m %SO2 decreased (P < 0.003). Compared to sea level values, pH increased at high altitude (P < 0.05) consistent with changes in pCO2 and [HCO3-] (P < 0.05). Nocturnal %SpaO2 at a sleeping altitude of 3480 m was lower (P < 0.05) than at sea level. At high altitude, the percent of wake (W) time and delay falling asleep (DFA) increased, whereas non-rapid eye movement sleep (N-REM), REM sleep and total sleep time (TST) decreased (P < 0.05). Simple regression analysis disclosed a significant correlation between the changes in TST and the percent of REM sleep and the changes in %SpaO2 recorded during sleep (P < 0.05). Simple regression analysis showed a positive correlation between the changes in pO2 at higher altitude and the percent of W and of TST (P < 0.05). The changes in pO2, tCO2 and [HCO3-] correlated negatively and significantly with the percent of REM sleep changes at high altitude (P < 0.05). The TST changes at high altitude correlated positively with the changes in pO2 and pH and correlated negatively with the changes in %SO2, pCO2, tCO2, and [HCO3-] (P < 0.05). The changes in the percent of W at high altitude correlated significantly and positively with the changes in bases excess [BE] at high altitude (P < 0.05). The changes in the percent of REM sleep correlated significantly and positively with the changes in [iCa++] and [BE] and negatively with the changes in buffered bases [BB] and [BEeffective] (P < 0.05). The change in the percent of NREM + REM sleep at high altitude correlated significantly and positively with the changes in [BE] and [BB] concentration (P < 0.05). The increase in DFA at high altitude correlated significantly and negatively with the changes in pCO2 and significantly and negatively with the changes in [K+] (P < 0.05). Simple regression analysis demonstrated that the changes in pH at high altitude correlated positively and significantly with the percent of W and the DFA and negatively with the percent of changes in NREM sleep, REM sleep, NREM + REM sleep (P < 0.05). The decrease in the TST at high altitude correlated significantly and negatively with the changes in pCO2, tCO2, [HCO3-]and [K+] (P < 0.05). Our data demonstrate that the arterialized ear lobe techniques we used for evaluating most of the changes in blood chemistry, acid-base, electrolyte and blood lactate metabolism are suitable for clinical and laboratory assessment and are important predictors of the quality and quantity of acclimatization and sleep at high altitude.
Clinical Investigation at High Altitude ; Laboratory Investigation at High Altitude ; Hematochemistry ; Acid-Base Metabolism ; Electrolyte Metabolism ; Blood Lactate Metabolism ; Hydration Status ; Sleep Quality Indicators ; EEG ; Mountain Marathon Runners
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/220409
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