Biomarkers of effect are measurable biochemical, physiological or other alterations within an organism that can be recognized as causing an established or potential impairment of embryo-fetal development. They may be identified studying the mechanisms of action of teratogens. Hyperacetylation of histones, oxidative stress, cholesterol and retinoic acid unbalance are some of the identified mechanisms of action of some known teratogens. Nevertheless, their use is not currently applicable in human pregnancy because of the difficulty of the choice of biological material, the time when the material must be obtained, and the invasivity of methods. Furthermore, before using them in human pregnancy studies, biomarkers should be validated in experimental animals and in epidemiologic studies. On the contrary, some biomarkers could be useful in the screening of developmental toxicity of chemicals and drugs, comparing molecules of the same chemical class or with the similar pharmacologic activity, and using adequate in vitro tests, in order to reduce the use of experimental animals.
Biomarkers of teratogenesis : suggestions from animal studies / E. Giavini, E. Menegola. - In: REPRODUCTIVE TOXICOLOGY. - ISSN 0890-6238. - 34:2(2012), pp. 180-185.
|Titolo:||Biomarkers of teratogenesis : suggestions from animal studies|
|Parole Chiave:||Biomarkers; Mechanisms; Teratogenesis|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/06 - Anatomia Comparata e Citologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2012|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2012.05.003|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|