Although l-glutamate is the most widespread excitatory neurotransmitter in vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems, there is only sparse evidence that it has this role in echinoderms. Following our previous finding that l-glutamate is widely distributed in the arms of the featherstar (crinoid echinoderm) Antedon mediterranea and initiates arm autotomy (defensive detachment), we now provide evidence of glutamatergic involvement in the control of the arm muscles of the same species using immunocytochemical and physiological methods. Immunofluorescence and immunoenzymatic techniques, which employed the same polyclonal antibody against l-glutamate conjugated to glutaraldehyde, revealed a high level of glutamate-like reactivity in the brachial muscles. By recording the mechanical responses of isolated arm pieces, we found that l-glutamate, l-aspartate and elevated [K(+)](o) induced rhythmic muscle contractions, while glycine, γ-aminobutyric acid, adrenaline and acetylcholine had either no, or no consistent, effect. The frequency and duration of the dominant component of the rhythmic contractions indicated that these may be responsible for the rhythmic activity of the arms that occurs during swimming and after autotomy. We conclude that it is highly likely that l-glutamate has at least a neuromodulatory role in the neural pathways controlling the brachial muscles of A. mediterranea.
The elusive role of L-glutamate as an echinoderm neurotransmitter: evidence for its involvement in the control of crinoid arm muscles / I. Wilkie, A. Barbaglio, M.D. Candia Carnevali. - In: ZOOLOGY. - ISSN 0944-2006. - 116:1(2013), pp. 1-8.
|Titolo:||The elusive role of L-glutamate as an echinoderm neurotransmitter: evidence for its involvement in the control of crinoid arm muscles|
BARBAGLIO, ALICE (Secondo)
CANDIA, MARIA DANIELA (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||Antedon mediterranea; Brachial muscles; Crinoidea; L-Glutamate-like immunoreactivity; Rhythmic contractions|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/05 - Zoologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2013|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.zool.2012.06.001|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|