The term “agrobiodiversity” emerged in the past decade, in an interdisciplinary framework that includes different disciplines (botany, ecology, agronomy, genetics, conservation biology…). It echoes the dynamic and complex relations among mankind, agriculture, cattle breeding, and their interactions in ecosystems. Agrobiodiversity is directly associated with food security, health, social equity, hunger alleviation, environmental sustainability, and rural sustainable development. These last ten years have seen an amplified consciousness both in Europe and in Italy of rural development topics. Within this route the farmer has occupied on a new role in society, not only as a simple provider of food products but also of services, especially involved and responsible of the conservation and sustainable use of (agro)biodiversity. The Rural Development Plans 2007-2013, adopted by all European Member States, had defined their policies and strategies for safeguarding agrobiodiversity, mainly through measure 214, the so-called “agri-environmental payments”, while for the next CAP the most prominent change is the introduction of a greening component to Pillar I, with three measures at farm level, rewarding farmers for their efforts (maintaining an “ecological focus area” of at least 7 % of farmland, crop diversification by growing at least three different crops and maintaining permanent grassland). Theo first two are mandatory to allow the access to subsidizing schemes. By considering the potential of utilization and conservation of agrobiodiversity in agricultural landscapes, a new paradigm in innovation processes, a new communication and cooperation strategies among farmers, scientists and policy makers to identify and establish a new way forward are required. In agroecosystems, farmers can act fostering or reducing agrobiodiversity at all levels through the selection of organisms, by modifying the abiotic environment and by interventions aimed at regulating specific populations (like weeds and insects) and by choosing crop rotation and crop diversification; the combination of all farms existing in an area leads to the creation of an agricultural landscape that express all the externalities (good or bad) of farming systems. Policy makers, civil society and researchers must be involved in this farmers’ options management, at different level, providing them tools and support to make suitable and viable adopting an agrobiodiversity-based solution. The efforts made by CAP and RDP in Region Lombardy to protect and enhance biodiversity and agrobiodiversity thorough the so-called Agro-Environmental Schemes (AES) was the starting point of the research projects presented in this thesis. The research activities has been developed as following. First, an analysis of the innovation system in the agri-food system, with specific insight to the role of scientific research, was performed. University and research centers can act as institutional facilitators of dialogue and development policies among different stakeholders, catalyzing participation and promoting participatory problem-solving strategies for agricultural development and cooperation. In Chapter I, the evolution of the concept of innovation was investigated and was defined an agro-ecological framework for agricultural development. Two studies at landscape level were the second and third activities carried out at Parco Agricolo Sud Milano, the biggest agricultural park in Europe. A model to define agroecological zoning combining landscape metrics and classical agronomical indicators was developed (chapter II), the Park was used as a benchmark area for assessing two main goals: i) the effectiveness of protected area to prevent negative effects on environment and biodiversity due to land use/land cover change and ii) the agroecological characteristics of rice farming system related to AES. Subsequently, due to the emerged limitations of the previous method, it was chosen to develop a pool of indicators to support decision-making processes related to land use changes (chapter III). The contribution of agro-ecosystem to human well-being is actually at risk, as a consequence of soil sealing due to transformations and urbanisation of rural areas. Specifically three landscape related indicators, proxies of agro-ecosystems characteristics and their services, were developed. At the end of the 3-year period a monitoring activity was carried out in the farm “La Darsena” near the village Lacchiarella (MI) in order to evaluate the influence of AES promoted by the RDP measure 214 action i (to preserve agrobiodiversity) on rice farming systems, in this measure the commitments are: 1) realization and maintenance of a ditch bordering the rice field main bank and of perpendicular farrows connected to it, 2) keeping and/or maintaining a green cover (natural vegetation/seeding) on the banks, 3) stubble management, in the specific leaving stubbles on the field till February – this commitment is facultative. No significant interactions with yield components of commitments 1 and 2 were found. The challenge is to understand the combined ecological and social functions of agrobiodiversity, to provide methodology and tools for monitoring and analysis of agrobiodiversity at different scales. This work is part of a general frame in which several stakeholders are involved to determine the value of agroecosystems and agrobiodiversity and to assess the latter contribution to ecosystem goods and services and for society at large, and evaluate options for the sustainable use and conservation of (agro)biodiversity across the new hybrid landscapes (Rural, semirural, periurban, marginal, urban).
AGRONOMIC INNOVATION FOR EMPOWERING AGROBIODIVERSITY AT DIFFERENT SCALES. RICE AGROECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY / A. Porro ; tutor: S. Bocchi, M. Acutis ; coordinatore: P.A. Bianco. - Milano : Università degli studi di Milano. DIPARTIMENTO DI SCIENZE AGRARIE E AMBIENTALI - PRODUZIONE, TERRITORIO, AGROENERGIA, 2013 Jan 22. ((24. ciclo, Anno Accademico 2011.
|Titolo:||AGRONOMIC INNOVATION FOR EMPOWERING AGROBIODIVERSITY AT DIFFERENT SCALES. RICE AGROECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY.|
|Supervisori e coordinatori interni:||BIANCO, PIERO ATTILIO|
|Data di pubblicazione:||22-gen-2013|
|Parole Chiave:||Agrobiodiversity ; agroecosystems ; landscape ; indicators ; GIS|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore AGR/02 - Agronomia e Coltivazioni Erbacee|
|Citazione:||AGRONOMIC INNOVATION FOR EMPOWERING AGROBIODIVERSITY AT DIFFERENT SCALES. RICE AGROECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY / A. Porro ; tutor: S. Bocchi, M. Acutis ; coordinatore: P.A. Bianco. - Milano : Università degli studi di Milano. DIPARTIMENTO DI SCIENZE AGRARIE E AMBIENTALI - PRODUZIONE, TERRITORIO, AGROENERGIA, 2013 Jan 22. ((24. ciclo, Anno Accademico 2011.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Tesi di dottorato|