Transverse and rotary gallop differ for the placement of the hind and fore leading feet: ipsilateral in the former, contralateral in the latter gait. 351-filmed sequences have been analysed to assess the gallop type of 89 investigated mammal species belonging to Carnivora, Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla orders. 23 biometrical, ecological and physiological parameters have been collected for each species both from literature data and from animal specimens. Most of the species showed only one kind of gallop: transverse (42%) or rotary (39%), while some species performed rotary gallop only at high speed (19%). In a factorial analysis the first principal component (PC), which accounted for 40% of the total variance, was positively correlated to the relative speed and negatively correlated to size and body mass. The second PC was correlated to the ratio between distal and proximal limb segments. Large size and longer proximal limb segments resulted associated to transverse gallop, while rotary and speed dependent species showed higher metacarpus/humerus and metatarsus/femur length ratio and faster relative speeds. The limb excursion angles resulted proportional to the square-root of the Froude number, and significantly higher in rotary galloper. The gait pattern analysis provided significant differences between transverse and rotary gallop in fore and hind duty factor (t-test; p < 0.001), and in duration of the fore contact (t-test; P = 0.045). Our results assessed that an exclusive gallop gait is adopted by a large number of mammal species, and indicated that the gallop pattern depends on diverse environmental, morphometrical and biomechanical characters.

Biomechanical determinants of transverse and rotary gallop in cursorial mammals / C.M. Biancardi, A.E. Minetti. - In: JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY. - ISSN 0022-0949. - 215:23(2012), pp. 4144-4156. [10.1242/jeb.073031]

Biomechanical determinants of transverse and rotary gallop in cursorial mammals

C.M. Biancardi
Primo
;
A.E. Minetti
Ultimo
2012

Abstract

Transverse and rotary gallop differ for the placement of the hind and fore leading feet: ipsilateral in the former, contralateral in the latter gait. 351-filmed sequences have been analysed to assess the gallop type of 89 investigated mammal species belonging to Carnivora, Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla orders. 23 biometrical, ecological and physiological parameters have been collected for each species both from literature data and from animal specimens. Most of the species showed only one kind of gallop: transverse (42%) or rotary (39%), while some species performed rotary gallop only at high speed (19%). In a factorial analysis the first principal component (PC), which accounted for 40% of the total variance, was positively correlated to the relative speed and negatively correlated to size and body mass. The second PC was correlated to the ratio between distal and proximal limb segments. Large size and longer proximal limb segments resulted associated to transverse gallop, while rotary and speed dependent species showed higher metacarpus/humerus and metatarsus/femur length ratio and faster relative speeds. The limb excursion angles resulted proportional to the square-root of the Froude number, and significantly higher in rotary galloper. The gait pattern analysis provided significant differences between transverse and rotary gallop in fore and hind duty factor (t-test; p < 0.001), and in duration of the fore contact (t-test; P = 0.045). Our results assessed that an exclusive gallop gait is adopted by a large number of mammal species, and indicated that the gallop pattern depends on diverse environmental, morphometrical and biomechanical characters.
transverse gallop ; rotary gallop ; cursorial mammals ; biomechanics ; gait
Settore BIO/09 - Fisiologia
2012
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/211378
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