Age is the main determinant of risk of endometriosis. The condition is rare before the menarche, probably increases with age until menopause and decreases after the menopause. The role of menstrual factors as determinants of endometriosis risk has been suggested, women with early menarche, short and heavy menstrual cycles being at higher risk. This has been generally explained by the reflux hypothesis. Parity is inversely associated with the risk of endometriosis, but it is difficult to define if nulliparity is a cause or a consequence of endometriosis. In some studies, the risk of the disease was lower among current oral contraceptive users, but higher in ex-users. However, these different findings may be due to selective mechanisms and indication bias. Other reported risk factors are family history of endometriosis, smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking, a diet rich in saturated fats, overweight (inverse relation), dioxin exposure, personal history of immune disorders.

Endometriosis: Epidemiology, and Etiological Factors / F. Parazzini, P. Vercellini, C. Pelucchi - In: Endometriosis : Science and Practice / [a cura di] L.C. Giudice, J.L.H. Evers, D.L. Healy. - [s.l] : Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. - ISBN 978-1-4443-3213-1. - pp. 19-26 [10.1002/9781444398519.ch2]

Endometriosis: Epidemiology, and Etiological Factors

F. Parazzini
Primo
;
P. Vercellini
Secondo
;
2012

Abstract

Age is the main determinant of risk of endometriosis. The condition is rare before the menarche, probably increases with age until menopause and decreases after the menopause. The role of menstrual factors as determinants of endometriosis risk has been suggested, women with early menarche, short and heavy menstrual cycles being at higher risk. This has been generally explained by the reflux hypothesis. Parity is inversely associated with the risk of endometriosis, but it is difficult to define if nulliparity is a cause or a consequence of endometriosis. In some studies, the risk of the disease was lower among current oral contraceptive users, but higher in ex-users. However, these different findings may be due to selective mechanisms and indication bias. Other reported risk factors are family history of endometriosis, smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking, a diet rich in saturated fats, overweight (inverse relation), dioxin exposure, personal history of immune disorders.
Endometriosis; Menstrual history; Oral contraceptives; Parity; Risk factors
Settore MED/40 - Ginecologia e Ostetricia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/206658
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