Object of study: We investigated the association of pack-years or cigarettes/day with both baseline carotid IMT (C-IMT) and the fastest C-IMT progression in 1694 men and 1893 women (age 54-79 yr) of the IMPROVE Study cohort (subjects at high-risk of cardiovascular disease of five European countries). Methods: Baseline IMT and the fastest IMT-progression (15 months of follow up) detected in the whole carotid tree regardless of its location were used. Associations were assessed by multivariable analysis adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, education and recruiting centre. Results: Pack-years, a lifelong index of tobacco exposure, significantly associated with baseline C-IMT in both genders. The estimated C-IMT increase for each pack-year was more than double in women than in men (3.7±0.7 vs. 1.5±0.5 µm) with a significant gender × dose interaction (P=0.01). Moreover, the estimated increase in the fastest C-IMT progression associated with a unit of cigarettes/day, an index of daily dose of tobacco exposure, was more than five-fold in women than in men (5.5±1.3 vs. 1.0±1.3 µm/yr), (P interaction =0.008). Conclusions. The effects of tobacco smoking on cross-sectional subclinical atherosclerotic burden, and on atherosclerosis progression appear to be more harmful in women than in men, prompting studies on gender specific mechanisms and development of preventive actions expressly oriented to women.
|Titolo:||The association of tobacco smoke with subclinical atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis progression is stronger in women than in men|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2011|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/S1567-5688(11)70822-4|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|