Human platelets express three types of P2 receptors, which play important roles in platelet function: P2X(1), P2Y(1) and P2Y(12). Only patients with either quantitative or qualitative abnormalities of the platelet P2Y(12) receptor have been well-characterized so far. Deficiencies of P2Y(12) are associated with nucleotide deletions in the open-reading frame, frameshifts, and early truncation of the protein, or with a nucleotide substitution in the transduction initiation codon. Congenital dysfunctions of P2Y(12) are associated with molecular defects involving the sixth trans-membrane domain or the adjacent third extracellular loop of the receptor, which identify a region of the protein whose integrity is necessary for normal receptor function. A mutation, predicting a lysine to glutamate (Lys174Glu) substitution was associated with decreased ligand binding to the receptor, suggesting that it is responsible for disruption of the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-binding site of the receptor. Patients with P2Y(12) defects display a mild-to-moderate bleeding diathesis, characterized by mucocutaneous bleedings and excessive post-surgical and post-traumatic blood loss. Defects of P2Y(12) should be suspected when ADP, even at high concentrations (≥10 μM), is unable to induce full, irreversible platelet aggregation. Tests that evaluate the degree of inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by ADP should be used to confirm the diagnosis.
|Titolo:||Molecular defects of the platelet P2 receptors|
CATTANEO, MARCO NATALE (Primo)
|Parole Chiave:||Platelets; P2Y12; P2 receptors; Adenosine diphosphate; Platelet function disorders; Platelet physiology|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/09 - Medicina Interna|
|Data di pubblicazione:||set-2011|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1007/s11302-011-9217-z|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|