Chlorpyrifos [0,0-diethyl 0-(3,5,6-trichloro-pyridyl) phosphorothioate] caused delayed polyneuropathy in man. Contrary to previous studies, we report here that it also causes delayed polyneuropathy in the hen, the animal model for this toxicity. The minimal neuropathic dose was 60-90 mg/kg p.o., corresponding to 4-6 times the estimated LD50. Consequently, pralidoxime (2-PAM) in conjunction with atropine was necessary to reverse acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and cholinergic toxicity in hens given high enough doses of chlorpyrifos to cause neuropathy. Chlorpyrifos was slowly absorbed after single oral doses and the threshold of inhibition (greater than 70%) of neuropathy target esterase (NTE), the putative target for delayed neuropathy, was reached within 5-6 days. High AChE inhibition (greater than 90%), however, was measured within hours after dosing because of the higher potency of chlorpyrifos to inhibit this enzyme. In vitro studies showed that chlorpyrifos-oxon, the active metabolite of chlorpyrifos, was 10-20 times more active against AChE than against NTE, confirming the clinical observation. No differences were seen between human and hen enzymes in this respect. Hen and human brain homogenates contain A-esterases which hydrolysed chlorpyrifos to about the same extent in both species. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos causes delayed polyneuropathy in the hen, as was reported in man. The reasons for previous negative data in the hen are probably due to the relatively lower doses which were used. Judging from in vitro studies with hen and human enzymes, there are no differences in the two species as far as their relative sensitivity to delayed polyneuropathy. It is likely that delayed polyneuropathy would develop in both species only after severe cholinergic toxicity requiring aggressive antidotal treatment.
Chlorpyrifos-induced delayed polyneuropathy / E. Capodicasa, M. L. Scapellato, A. Moretto, S. Caroldi, M. Lotti. - In: ARCHIVES OF TOXICOLOGY. - ISSN 0340-5761. - 65:2(1991), pp. 150-5-155.
|Titolo:||Chlorpyrifos-induced delayed polyneuropathy|
|Parole Chiave:||A-Esterases; Acetylcholinesterase; Chlorpyrifos; Neuropathy target esterase; Organophosphates; Polyneuropathy|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/44 - Medicina del Lavoro|
|Data di pubblicazione:||1991|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02034943|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|