SUMMARY: We assessed the long-term feasibility, safety, and tolerability of two regimens of aerosolized pentamidine (AP) as primary prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in a large sample of infants and children with symptomatic HIV infection in 21 pediatric departments. One hundred forty children were assigned to receive 60 mg every 2 weeks (n = 60) or 120 mg every 4 weeks (n = 80) of AP, delivered by the ultrasonic nebulizer Fisoneb under the supervision of trained personnel. Children underwent monthly clinical and laboratory controls for toxicity and/or development of PCP for an 18-month period. Baseline characteristics were similar in the two treatment groups. The median age was 5 years. The feasibility of administering AP was excellent in 84 (60 percent) and good in 38 (27 percent) children. All children aged <2 years showed excellent or good feasibility. Long-term compliance was good with both regimens. No child had severe adverse reactions requiring discontinuation of the treatment. Cough, sneezing, and bronchospasm were the most frequent side effects occurring, respectively, in 12, 3.7, and 0.7 percent of the 60-mg treatments and in 19.1, 6. 1, and 2.8 percent of 120-mg treatments (p < 0.05). Their incidence was not different in children younger or older than 5 years. Two episodes of PCP were observed in the group receiving 120 mg monthly, whereas none of the 60 children in the biweekly schedule had PCP (p = 0.20). AP can be safely administered to very young children with few adverse side effects.
|Titolo:||Long-term administration of aerosolized pentamidine as primary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in infants and children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. The Italian Pediatric Collaborative Study Group on Pentamidine|
|Parole Chiave:||Aerosolized pentamidine; Children; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; Pneumocystis carinii prophylaxis|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/38 - Pediatria Generale e Specialistica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||1-giu-1996|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|