Gangliosides exist as a very complex mixture of species differing in both the hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties. They are particularly abundant in the central nervous system (CNS), where they have been associated with development and maturation of the brain, neuritogenesis, synaptic transmission, memory formation and synaptic aging. Today, many data suggest that some of the effects exerted by gangliosides are due to interactions with proteins that participate in the transduction of signals through the membrane in membrane microdomains. A specific characteristic of CNS gangliosides is the structure of their long-chain base (LCB). In fact, considering all the mammalian cell sphingolipids,,gangliosides, sulphatides, neutral glycosphingolipids, sphingomyelin and ceramides, it would seem that while the LCB with 18 carbons is the main component of all sphingolipids, only CNS gangliosides contain significant amounts of LCB with 20 carbons. C18-Sphingosine is always present in cell gangliosides; the individual ganglioside species containing C18-sphingosine increase during cell differentiation then remain constant during cell aging. Gangliosides containing C20-sphingosine are absent, or present only in traces, in undifferentiated cells but with the onset of cell differentiation they appear, their content slowly but continuously increasing throughout the life span. In this review we discuss the chemistry, physico-chemistry and metabolism of ganglioside species differing in LCB length and introduce the hypothesis that the varying ratio between C18- and C20-gangliosides during CNS development and aging can be instrumental in modulating membrane domain organisation and cell properties. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Ganglioside molecular species containing C18-and C20-sphingosine in mammalian nervous tissues and neuronal cell cultures / S. Sonnino, V. Chigorno. - In: BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-REVIEWS ON BIOMEMBRANES. - ISSN 0304-4157. - 1469:2(2000), pp. 63-77. [10.1016/S0005-2736(00)00210-8]

Ganglioside molecular species containing C18-and C20-sphingosine in mammalian nervous tissues and neuronal cell cultures

S. Sonnino
Primo
;
V. Chigorno
Ultimo
2000

Abstract

Gangliosides exist as a very complex mixture of species differing in both the hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties. They are particularly abundant in the central nervous system (CNS), where they have been associated with development and maturation of the brain, neuritogenesis, synaptic transmission, memory formation and synaptic aging. Today, many data suggest that some of the effects exerted by gangliosides are due to interactions with proteins that participate in the transduction of signals through the membrane in membrane microdomains. A specific characteristic of CNS gangliosides is the structure of their long-chain base (LCB). In fact, considering all the mammalian cell sphingolipids,,gangliosides, sulphatides, neutral glycosphingolipids, sphingomyelin and ceramides, it would seem that while the LCB with 18 carbons is the main component of all sphingolipids, only CNS gangliosides contain significant amounts of LCB with 20 carbons. C18-Sphingosine is always present in cell gangliosides; the individual ganglioside species containing C18-sphingosine increase during cell differentiation then remain constant during cell aging. Gangliosides containing C20-sphingosine are absent, or present only in traces, in undifferentiated cells but with the onset of cell differentiation they appear, their content slowly but continuously increasing throughout the life span. In this review we discuss the chemistry, physico-chemistry and metabolism of ganglioside species differing in LCB length and introduce the hypothesis that the varying ratio between C18- and C20-gangliosides during CNS development and aging can be instrumental in modulating membrane domain organisation and cell properties. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Aging; Biosynthesis; Development; Ganglioside; Long-chain base
Settore BIO/10 - Biochimica
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/189318
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