Reuptake of glutamate in astrocytes, a critical mechanism involved in the maintenance of physiological excitatory amino acid neurotransmission, is inhibited by both arachidonic acid (AA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), via incompletely defined molecular mechanisms. Because ROS are generated during AA metabolism and AA can be released as a result of ROS-mediated phospholipase A(2) activation, it seems likely that their effects on uptake are mediated by a common mechanism. However, here we show that rapid (10-min) uptake inhibitions by AA or by ROS generated by the xanthine plus xanthine oxidase (XO) reaction are selectively abolished by distinct agents; bovine serum albumin (BSA) acts only on AA, whereas the scavenger enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and the disulfide-reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) act only on ROS. Moreover, when added together, xanthine/XO and AA decrease uptake in a fully additive manner. In particular, the effect of xanthine/XO is seen also in the presence of maximal AA inhibition. No major signs of cell damage or chemical reaction between AA and radicals accompany their cumulative effects on uptake. Finally, uptake inhibition elicited by AA and xanthine/XO together is attenuated but not blocked by either BSA, DTT, or SOD/CAT individually, whereas it is fully blocked and substantially reversed by a combination of SOD/CAT and BSA or SOD/CAT, DTT, and BSA. Together, these data indicate that AA and ROS act on glial glutamate transport via distinct noninteracting mechanisms. Therefore, they could independently and additively contribute to the impairment of reuptake function, a phenomenon observed in pathological conditions such as ischemia/reperfusion injury.
|Titolo:||GLUTAMATE UPTAKE IS INHIBITED BY ARACHIDONIC ACID AND OXYGEN RADICALS VIA 2 DISTINCT AND ADDITIVE MECHANISMS|
VOLTERRA, ANDREA (Primo)
RACAGNI, GIORGIO ANGELO (Ultimo)
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||1994|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|