Prone position was initially introduced in healthy anesthetized and paralyzed subjects for surgical specific reasons. Then, it was used during acute respiratory failure to improve gas exchange. The interest on prone position during ALI/ARDS progressively increased, even if the mechanisms leading to a respiratory improvement are not yet completely understood. In normal subjects, during anesthesia and paralysis, prone position determines a more homogeneous distribution of the gravitational gradient of alveolar inflation, a ventilation distributed towards the non dependent lung regions and a reverse of the gravitational distribution of regional perfusion, even if factors other than gravity are involved. Moreover, prone position causes, both in healthy subject and in obese patients, an improvement in oxygenation and in functional residual capacity without affecting respiratory system, lung and chest wall compliance. In ALI/ARDS patients, prone position lead to a reverse of the alveolar inflation and ventilation distribution, due to the reverse of hydrostatic pressure overlying lung parenchyma, the reverse of heart weight, and the changes in chest wall shape and mechanical properties. Little data are available for the modifications in regional lung perfusion. The possible mechanisms involved in oxygenation improvement during prone position in ALI/ARDS patients are: 1) increased lung volumes; 2) redistribution of lung perfusion; 3) recruitment of dorsal spaces with more homogeneous ventilation and perfusion distribution. From a clinical point of view, prone position seems to be a very promising treatment for ALI/ARDS, even if its use is not yet a standard clinical practice. We have recently finished a randomized-controlled trial in order to investigate the clinical impact of this procedure. In the preliminary phase of the study performed in 35 Italian Intensive Care Units, we studied, from 1996 to 1998, 73 patients with a PaO2/FiO2 of 123 +/- 42 and a SAPS (Simplified Acute Physiology Score) of 38 +/- 11. After the first hour of prone positioning, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio of 76% of the patients had increased by more than 20 mmHg (responder) with a mean increase of 78 +/- 53 mmHg. The proportion of responders increased to 85% after 6 hours of prone positioning. The incidence of maneuver-related complications and severe and life-threatening complications was extremely rare. The overall mortality at ICU discharge was 51% and the ICU stay was similar in survivors and non survivors (17.8 +/- 11.6 vs 17.8 +/- 11.4 days).
|Titolo:||Pathophysiology of prone positioning in the healthy lung and in ALI/ARDS|
CAIRONI, PIETRO (Secondo)
|Parole Chiave:||Supine Position; Humans; Respiration; Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult; Pilot Projects; Italy; Gravitation; Prone Position; Anesthesia; Pulmonary Edema; Respiratory Mechanics; Lung; Lung Injury; Positive-Pressure Respiration; Lung Volume Measurements; Pulmonary Alveoli|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/41 - Anestesiologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||apr-2001|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|