This study was undertaken to characterize tissue factor (TF) induction, localization, and functional activity in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor (rVEGF) and recombinant tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rTNF-alpha). rVEGF (1 nmol/L) and rTNF-alpha (500 U/mL) synergistically increased TF mRNA, protein, and total activity, as measured in cell lysates. To examine surface TF expression, living cells were treated with antibody to TF and examined microscopically. Almost no staining was seen in control cells or cells treated with a single agent. In contrast, cells treated with both agonists showed intense membrane staining with surface patches, appearing as buds by confocal microscopy. To determine surface TF activity, studies were performed using a parallel-plate flow chamber, which allows detection of factor Xa generation on living cells. rVEGF and rTNF-alpha induced little surface TF activity (0.032+/-0.008 and 0.014+/-0.008 fmol/cm2, respectively). In combination, they significantly increased TF expression on the cell surface (0.429+/-0.094 fmol/cm2, P<0.05). These data indicate that the synergistic effect of rVEGF and rTNF-alpha is necessary to generate functional TF on the surface of endothelial cells. The requirement for multiple agonists to expose active TF may serve to protect endothelial cells from acting as a procoagulant surface, even under conditions of cell perturbation.
|Titolo:||Cooperation between VEGF and TNF-alpha is necessary for exposure of active tissue factor on the surface of human endothelial cells|
CAMERA, MARINA (Primo)
TREMOLI, ELENA (Penultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; Antigens, Surface; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; Recombinant Proteins; Humans; Factor Xa; Gene Expression; Endothelial Growth Factors; Endothelium, Vascular; RNA, Messenger; Cells, Cultured; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors; Thromboplastin; Umbilical Veins; Drug Synergism; Lymphokines|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||mar-1999|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|