RNA molecules and proteins are accumulated in the oocyte cytoplasm during its growth phase and are used to sustain the early phases of embryonic development before embryo DNA transcription begins. This makes the oocyte a very special cell, quite different from somatic cells where RNA and proteins usually undergo a rapid turnover. To enable the storage and timely use of such stored molecules, various mechanisms are effective in the oocyte and are gradually being elucidated. Our understanding of such mechanisms is important for constantly improving therapy for human and animal reproductive disorders as well as for understanding the process of nuclear reprogramming during cloning procedure or stem cell generation. This review focuses on the various aspects of these regulatory processes in an attempt to give an overview of the present knowledge on post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms taking place during oocyte maturation and early development. Mechanisms such as cytoplasmic regulation of the poly(A) tail, RNA localization and protein phosphorylation are described in some detail. Because most data are available from lower species these are presented together with appropriate reference to the mammalian oocyte when data are known, or when important differences have been described.

The Maternal legacy to the embryo: cytoplasmic components and their effects on early development / T.A.L. Brevini, F. Gandolfi - In: The mammalian oocyte: from basic biology to biotechnology trough assisted reproduction[s.l] : Elsevier, 2001 Apr 01. - pp. 1255-1277

The Maternal legacy to the embryo: cytoplasmic components and their effects on early development

T.A.L. Brevini;F. Gandolfi
Ultimo
2001-04-01

Abstract

RNA molecules and proteins are accumulated in the oocyte cytoplasm during its growth phase and are used to sustain the early phases of embryonic development before embryo DNA transcription begins. This makes the oocyte a very special cell, quite different from somatic cells where RNA and proteins usually undergo a rapid turnover. To enable the storage and timely use of such stored molecules, various mechanisms are effective in the oocyte and are gradually being elucidated. Our understanding of such mechanisms is important for constantly improving therapy for human and animal reproductive disorders as well as for understanding the process of nuclear reprogramming during cloning procedure or stem cell generation. This review focuses on the various aspects of these regulatory processes in an attempt to give an overview of the present knowledge on post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms taking place during oocyte maturation and early development. Mechanisms such as cytoplasmic regulation of the poly(A) tail, RNA localization and protein phosphorylation are described in some detail. Because most data are available from lower species these are presented together with appropriate reference to the mammalian oocyte when data are known, or when important differences have been described.
Developmental competence; Embryo; Oocyte; Post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation
Settore VET/01 - Anatomia degli Animali Domestici
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/187730
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