Abstract OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the prevalence of HIV-1 non-clade B over time in a formerly clade B-restricted area. Protease and reverse transcriptase regions of the pol gene were used for phylogenetic and recombination analysis and for clade assignment to HIV-1 A-D, F-H, J, and K strains of the M group. METHODS: The pol gene of 349 HIV-1 patients belonging to the Italian Cohort Naive for Antiretrovirals (ICONA) were genotypically analyzed to study the prevalence of antiretroviral-associated resistance mutations. All HIV-1 pol sequences and 32 HIV reference strains were analyzed, including the reference strains for the major HIV-1 subtypes. The non-clade B sequences according to the HIV-1 Subtyping Tool program were further studied by a bootscan analysis (SimPlot) to investigate the likelihood of recombination between subtypes. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis detected 19 of 349 (5.4%) non-clade B subtypes. The proportions of patients carrying non-clade B virus before and after 1997 were 1.9% and 8.4%, respectively (p =.008). Among whites, heterosexual infection and female gender were significantly associated with the presence of non-clade B subtypes (p =.001 and.005, respectively). Non-clade B HIV-1 was harbored by 14.5% of the heterosexuals who were found to be HIV-1 positive after 1997, 60% of whom were women. Bootscan analysis identified four strains as F, two as A, one as C, one as G, and 11 (57.9 %) as non-clade B recombinant subtypes. CONCLUSION: Detection of HIV-1 subtypes and intersubtype recombinants in a previously clade B-homogeneous area indicates that the HIV-1 epidemic is evolving in Italy and that heterosexuals and women are at increased risk of infection with non-clade B HIV-1 subtypes. Sequences inferred from the pol gene yield to establish the subtype of circulating HIV-1 strains. As a consequence, genotyping of pol gene for testing resistance to antiretrovirals warrants concomitant surveillance of non-clade B subtypes.

Increasing prevalence of non-clade B HIV-1 strains in heterosexuals, as monitored by the analysis of the RT and protease sequences. / C. Balotta, G. Facchi, M. Violin, S. Van Dooren, A. Cozzi-Lepri, F. Forbici, A. Bertoli, D. Senese, P. Caramello, G. Carnevale, G. Rizzardini, L. Cremonini, L. Monno, G. Rezza, C.F. Perno, G. Ippolito, A. d’Arminio-Monforte, A.M. Vandamme, M. Moroni. - In: JOURNAL OF ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. - ISSN 1525-4135. - 27:5(2001 Aug 15), pp. 499-505.

Increasing prevalence of non-clade B HIV-1 strains in heterosexuals, as monitored by the analysis of the RT and protease sequences.

C. Balotta
Primo
;
C.F. Perno;A. d’Arminio-Monforte;M. Moroni
Ultimo
2001-08-15

Abstract

Abstract OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the prevalence of HIV-1 non-clade B over time in a formerly clade B-restricted area. Protease and reverse transcriptase regions of the pol gene were used for phylogenetic and recombination analysis and for clade assignment to HIV-1 A-D, F-H, J, and K strains of the M group. METHODS: The pol gene of 349 HIV-1 patients belonging to the Italian Cohort Naive for Antiretrovirals (ICONA) were genotypically analyzed to study the prevalence of antiretroviral-associated resistance mutations. All HIV-1 pol sequences and 32 HIV reference strains were analyzed, including the reference strains for the major HIV-1 subtypes. The non-clade B sequences according to the HIV-1 Subtyping Tool program were further studied by a bootscan analysis (SimPlot) to investigate the likelihood of recombination between subtypes. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis detected 19 of 349 (5.4%) non-clade B subtypes. The proportions of patients carrying non-clade B virus before and after 1997 were 1.9% and 8.4%, respectively (p =.008). Among whites, heterosexual infection and female gender were significantly associated with the presence of non-clade B subtypes (p =.001 and.005, respectively). Non-clade B HIV-1 was harbored by 14.5% of the heterosexuals who were found to be HIV-1 positive after 1997, 60% of whom were women. Bootscan analysis identified four strains as F, two as A, one as C, one as G, and 11 (57.9 %) as non-clade B recombinant subtypes. CONCLUSION: Detection of HIV-1 subtypes and intersubtype recombinants in a previously clade B-homogeneous area indicates that the HIV-1 epidemic is evolving in Italy and that heterosexuals and women are at increased risk of infection with non-clade B HIV-1 subtypes. Sequences inferred from the pol gene yield to establish the subtype of circulating HIV-1 strains. As a consequence, genotyping of pol gene for testing resistance to antiretrovirals warrants concomitant surveillance of non-clade B subtypes.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/187558
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