Following Blumberg's discovery of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), many attempts have been made to develop several in vitro diagnostic techniques for the detection of this antigen and its homologous antibody. The two-dimensional micro-Ouchterlony immunodiffusion has been the first technique used, rapidly replaced by procedures of increasing sensitivity characterized as second-generation and the currently available third-phase tests which include radioimmunoassay (RIA), reverse passive haemagglutination (RPHA), reverse passive latex agglutination (RPLA) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Among these, RIA appears to be the most sensitive and specific, whereas EIA, RPHA and RPLA have the advantage of long shelf-life of stable reagents, no need for sophisticated and expensive equipment and no hazard associated with the handling of radioactive isotopes. Moreover, the sensitivity of EIA should increase by objective reading with a colorimeter. The most sensitive method for the detection of surface antibody (anti-HBs) is again RIA, whereas passive haemagglutination (PHA) had the advantage of providing titres. Finally EIA, based on inhibition of a known amount of HBsAg, has at least the same sensitivity as PHA, but has the advantage that reagents are more stable and that it permits screening for both HBsAg and anti-HBs with the same reagents at the same time. The application of these highly sensitive techniques for the detection of HBsAg and anti-HBs has resulted in a consistent reduction in the incidence of post-transfusion hepatitis type B and in a better understanding of the aetiology, epidemiology and natural history of this infection.
|Titolo:||Status and significance of testing for hepatitis B surface antigen and surface antibody|
ZANETTI, ALESSANDRO REMO (Primo)
BIANCHI, VITTORIO (Ultimo)
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/42 - Igiene Generale e Applicata|
|Data di pubblicazione:||1980|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/0166-0934(80)90041-5|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|