Impairment of the fibrinolytic system, caused primarily by increases in the plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) type 1, are frequently found in diabetes and the insulin-resistance syndrome. Among the factors responsible for the increases of PAI-1, insulin has recently attracted attention. In this study, we analyzed the effects of insulin on PAI-1 biosynthesis in HepG2 cells, paying particular attention to the signaling network evoked by this hormone. Experiments performed in CHO cells overexpressing the insulin receptor indicate that insulin increases PAI-1 gene transcription through interaction with its receptor. By using inhibitors of the different signaling pathways evoked by insulin-receptor binding, it has been shown that the biosynthesis of PAI-1 is due to phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activation, followed by protein kinase C and ultimately by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 phosphorylation. We also showed that this pathway is Ras-independent. Transfection of HepG2 cells with several truncations of the PAI-1 promoter coupled to a CAT gene allowed us to recognize two major response elements located in the regions between -804 and -708 and between -211 and -54. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay identified three binding sites for insulin-induced factors, all colocalized with putative Sp1 binding sites. Using supershifting antibodies, the binding of Sp1 could only be confirmed at the binding site located just upstream from the transcription start site of the PAI-1 promoter. A construct comprising four tandem repeat copies of the -93/-62 region of the PAI-1 promoter linked to CAT was transcriptionally activated in HepG2 cells by insulin. These results outline the central role of MAP kinase activation in the regulation of PAI-1 induced by insulin.

Transcriptional regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene by insulin: insights into the signaling pathway / C. Banfi, P. Eriksson, G. Giandomenico, L. Mussoni, L. Sironi, A. Hamsten, E. Tremoli. - In: DIABETES. - ISSN 0012-1797. - 50:7(2001 Jul), pp. 1522-1530. [10.2337/diabetes.50.7.1522]

Transcriptional regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene by insulin: insights into the signaling pathway

C. Banfi
Primo
;
L. Mussoni;L. Sironi;E. Tremoli
Ultimo
2001-07

Abstract

Impairment of the fibrinolytic system, caused primarily by increases in the plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) type 1, are frequently found in diabetes and the insulin-resistance syndrome. Among the factors responsible for the increases of PAI-1, insulin has recently attracted attention. In this study, we analyzed the effects of insulin on PAI-1 biosynthesis in HepG2 cells, paying particular attention to the signaling network evoked by this hormone. Experiments performed in CHO cells overexpressing the insulin receptor indicate that insulin increases PAI-1 gene transcription through interaction with its receptor. By using inhibitors of the different signaling pathways evoked by insulin-receptor binding, it has been shown that the biosynthesis of PAI-1 is due to phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activation, followed by protein kinase C and ultimately by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 phosphorylation. We also showed that this pathway is Ras-independent. Transfection of HepG2 cells with several truncations of the PAI-1 promoter coupled to a CAT gene allowed us to recognize two major response elements located in the regions between -804 and -708 and between -211 and -54. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay identified three binding sites for insulin-induced factors, all colocalized with putative Sp1 binding sites. Using supershifting antibodies, the binding of Sp1 could only be confirmed at the binding site located just upstream from the transcription start site of the PAI-1 promoter. A construct comprising four tandem repeat copies of the -93/-62 region of the PAI-1 promoter linked to CAT was transcriptionally activated in HepG2 cells by insulin. These results outline the central role of MAP kinase activation in the regulation of PAI-1 induced by insulin.
Morpholines; Chromones; ras Proteins; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Humans; Transcription, Genetic; Enzyme Inhibitors; Chromosome Mapping; Insulin; Liver Neoplasms; Promoter Regions, Genetic; Base Sequence; Tumor Cells, Cultured; Molecular Sequence Data; Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1; Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases; Protein Kinase C; Signal Transduction
Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/185675
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