The glutamatergic synapse is the key structure in the development of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system. The analysis of the complex biochemical mechanisms at the basis of the long-term changes in synaptic efficacy have received a tremendous impulse by the observation that the post-synaptic constituents of the synapse can be separated and purified through a simple procedure involving detergent treatment of synaptosomes and differential centrifugation. In this fraction, called post-synaptic density (PSD), the functional interactions of its constituents are preserved. The various subunits of ionotropic glutamate receptors are held in register with the presynaptic active zone through their interaction with linker proteins. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subunits NR2A and NR2B, bind to the PSD protein called PSD-95, which in turn binds neuroligins, providing a handle for interacting with neurexin, located in the plasma membrane at the presynaptic active zone. Additional clustering of NMDA receptors is provided through the binding of NR1 subunits to the cytoskeletal protein α-actinin-2. AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) and kainate receptors are other important constituents of PSDs and bind to different anchoring proteins. Phosphorylation processes have long been known to modulate NMDA receptor functional activity: the finding that several protein kinases, particularly Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and protein tyrosine kinases of the src family, are major constituents of PSDs has allowed to demonstrate that these enzymes are localized in a strategic position of the glutamatergic synapse, so that their activation provides a means for NMDA receptor function regulation upon its activation. The relevance of these mechanisms has been demonstrated in experimental models of pathologies involving deficits in synaptic plasticity, such as in streptozotocin-induced diabetes and in an animal model of prenatal induced ablation of hippocampal neurons. Both animal models display disturbances in long-term potentiation and cognitive deficits, thus providing in vivo models to study pathology related changes in both the structure and the function of the excitatory synapse

Pathophysiological implications of the structural organization of the excitatory synapse / F. Cattabeni, F. Gardoni, M.M.G. Di Luca. - In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY. - ISSN 0014-2999. - 375:1-3(1999), pp. 339-347. [10.1016/S0014-2999(99)00299-X]

Pathophysiological implications of the structural organization of the excitatory synapse

F. Cattabeni;F. Gardoni;M.M.G. Di Luca
1999

Abstract

The glutamatergic synapse is the key structure in the development of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system. The analysis of the complex biochemical mechanisms at the basis of the long-term changes in synaptic efficacy have received a tremendous impulse by the observation that the post-synaptic constituents of the synapse can be separated and purified through a simple procedure involving detergent treatment of synaptosomes and differential centrifugation. In this fraction, called post-synaptic density (PSD), the functional interactions of its constituents are preserved. The various subunits of ionotropic glutamate receptors are held in register with the presynaptic active zone through their interaction with linker proteins. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subunits NR2A and NR2B, bind to the PSD protein called PSD-95, which in turn binds neuroligins, providing a handle for interacting with neurexin, located in the plasma membrane at the presynaptic active zone. Additional clustering of NMDA receptors is provided through the binding of NR1 subunits to the cytoskeletal protein α-actinin-2. AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) and kainate receptors are other important constituents of PSDs and bind to different anchoring proteins. Phosphorylation processes have long been known to modulate NMDA receptor functional activity: the finding that several protein kinases, particularly Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and protein tyrosine kinases of the src family, are major constituents of PSDs has allowed to demonstrate that these enzymes are localized in a strategic position of the glutamatergic synapse, so that their activation provides a means for NMDA receptor function regulation upon its activation. The relevance of these mechanisms has been demonstrated in experimental models of pathologies involving deficits in synaptic plasticity, such as in streptozotocin-induced diabetes and in an animal model of prenatal induced ablation of hippocampal neurons. Both animal models display disturbances in long-term potentiation and cognitive deficits, thus providing in vivo models to study pathology related changes in both the structure and the function of the excitatory synapse
Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/185595
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