HAEMATOLOGICAL AND PARASITOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN EARLY STAGES OF ACUTE CANINE BABESIOSIS Paltrinieri S., Manfredi M.T., Comazzi S. Istituto di Patologia Generale Veterinaria, Milano In Italy the acute form caused by B.canis is the most frequent clinical finding of canine babesiosis. It is charachterized by fever, anorexia, haemoglobinura and icterus. A mild to severe hemolytic and rigenerative anaemia is considered as one of the most relevant features of the disease. However, the clincal diagnosis is based on the detection of infected erythrocytes in blood smears. However, anaemia may appear later than other signs and very few infected cells could be found. The aim of this study was to charachterize the anaemia and the parasitaemia to drawn useful informations about patophysiology and diagnosis of the acute stage of the disease. Blood samples were collected over the last two years from 31 dogs by practicioners in the area of Milan at the first appearance of clinical signs of spontaneous acute canine babesiosis. As a control 24 healthy dogs were sampled from the same study area and throughout the same study period. Complete haemograms with an automatic cell counter and differential leucocyte counts on May Grünwald-Giemsa stained blood smears were carried out. The degree of anaemia was evaluated by reticulocyte counts on brillant-cresyl blue stained smears. The reticulocyte production index (RPI) was also calculated. Blood films were observed in the center and at the periphery to calculate the percentage of infected erythrocytes. The Percoll discontinuous gradient sedimentation (=1.085; =1.102) was performed in 15 cases to concentrate infected blood cells. When compared to controls, 19 out of the 31 Babesia infected dogs (64.6%) had eosinopenia (P<0.001) and lymphopenia (P<0.05). No abnormalities on erythrogram were found though reyculocyte parameters tended to increase. The remaining 11 dogs (35.4%) had a normochromic normocytic anaemia (P<0.001) with erythroblastosis (P<0.001) and an increased percentage of both reticulocytes (P<0.05) and RPI (P<0.05). In none of the 31 cases, however, the RPI was greater than 1 as it should be in responsive anaemia. The percentage of infected cells was higher at the peryphery than in the center of blood films (P<0.001), where 8 samples (25.8%) were found negative. The isolation with Percoll furtherly increased the percentage of detectable infected erythrocytes (P<0.001). The percentage of infected cells at the center of the smears was higher in anaemic than in non anaemic dogs (P<0.05). No correlation was found between anaemia and parasitaemia, suggesting that immune-mediated haemolysis could play an important role in the pathogenesis. In conclusion, in the early stage of canine babesiosis anaemia can be unconstant and parasitaemia very variable. However, some signs of bone marrow activity such as increased reticulocyte counts and RPI, and the isolation of infected erytrocytes with Percoll could improve the early diagnosis.

Haematological and parasitological findings in early stages of acute canine babesiosis / S. Paltrinieri, M.T. Manfredi, S. Comazzi. ((Intervento presentato al 15. convegno Atti 15° E.S.V.P. Congress tenutosi a Alghero nel 1997.

Haematological and parasitological findings in early stages of acute canine babesiosis

S. Paltrinieri
Primo
;
M.T. Manfredi
Secondo
;
S. Comazzi
Ultimo
1997

Abstract

HAEMATOLOGICAL AND PARASITOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN EARLY STAGES OF ACUTE CANINE BABESIOSIS Paltrinieri S., Manfredi M.T., Comazzi S. Istituto di Patologia Generale Veterinaria, Milano In Italy the acute form caused by B.canis is the most frequent clinical finding of canine babesiosis. It is charachterized by fever, anorexia, haemoglobinura and icterus. A mild to severe hemolytic and rigenerative anaemia is considered as one of the most relevant features of the disease. However, the clincal diagnosis is based on the detection of infected erythrocytes in blood smears. However, anaemia may appear later than other signs and very few infected cells could be found. The aim of this study was to charachterize the anaemia and the parasitaemia to drawn useful informations about patophysiology and diagnosis of the acute stage of the disease. Blood samples were collected over the last two years from 31 dogs by practicioners in the area of Milan at the first appearance of clinical signs of spontaneous acute canine babesiosis. As a control 24 healthy dogs were sampled from the same study area and throughout the same study period. Complete haemograms with an automatic cell counter and differential leucocyte counts on May Grünwald-Giemsa stained blood smears were carried out. The degree of anaemia was evaluated by reticulocyte counts on brillant-cresyl blue stained smears. The reticulocyte production index (RPI) was also calculated. Blood films were observed in the center and at the periphery to calculate the percentage of infected erythrocytes. The Percoll discontinuous gradient sedimentation (=1.085; =1.102) was performed in 15 cases to concentrate infected blood cells. When compared to controls, 19 out of the 31 Babesia infected dogs (64.6%) had eosinopenia (P<0.001) and lymphopenia (P<0.05). No abnormalities on erythrogram were found though reyculocyte parameters tended to increase. The remaining 11 dogs (35.4%) had a normochromic normocytic anaemia (P<0.001) with erythroblastosis (P<0.001) and an increased percentage of both reticulocytes (P<0.05) and RPI (P<0.05). In none of the 31 cases, however, the RPI was greater than 1 as it should be in responsive anaemia. The percentage of infected cells was higher at the peryphery than in the center of blood films (P<0.001), where 8 samples (25.8%) were found negative. The isolation with Percoll furtherly increased the percentage of detectable infected erythrocytes (P<0.001). The percentage of infected cells at the center of the smears was higher in anaemic than in non anaemic dogs (P<0.05). No correlation was found between anaemia and parasitaemia, suggesting that immune-mediated haemolysis could play an important role in the pathogenesis. In conclusion, in the early stage of canine babesiosis anaemia can be unconstant and parasitaemia very variable. However, some signs of bone marrow activity such as increased reticulocyte counts and RPI, and the isolation of infected erytrocytes with Percoll could improve the early diagnosis.
Settore VET/03 - Patologia Generale e Anatomia Patologica Veterinaria
Settore VET/06 - Parassitologia e Malattie Parassitarie degli Animali
European Society of Veterinary PAthology
Haematological and parasitological findings in early stages of acute canine babesiosis / S. Paltrinieri, M.T. Manfredi, S. Comazzi. ((Intervento presentato al 15. convegno Atti 15° E.S.V.P. Congress tenutosi a Alghero nel 1997.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/180676
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