The increase in global consumption of illicit drugs has produced not only social and medical problems but also a potential new environmental danger. Indeed, it has been established that drugs consumed by humans end up in surface waters, after being carried through the sewage system. Although many studies to measure concentrations of several drugs of abuse in freshwater worldwide have been conducted, no data have been available to evaluate their potentially harmful effects on non-target organisms until now. The present study represents the first attempt to investigate the cyto-genotoxic effects of cocaine, one of the primary drugs consumed in Western Countries, in the biological model Dreissena polymorpha by the use of a biomarker battery. We performed the following tests on Zebra mussel hemocytes: the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, the apoptosis frequency evaluation and the micronucleus assay (MN test) for the evaluation of genotoxicity and the lysosomal membranes stability test (neutral red retention assay; NRRA) to identify the cocaine cytotoxicity. We exposed the molluscs for 96 h to three different nominal concentrations in water (40 ng L-1: 220 ng; and 10 mu g L-1). Cocaine caused significant (p < 0.05) primary DNA damage in this short-term experiment, but it also caused a clear increase in micronucleated cells and a marked rise in apoptosis, which was evident in samples from even the lowest environmental cocaine concentration. Because cocaine decreased the stability of lysosomal membranes, we also highlighted its cytotoxicity and the possible implications of oxidative stress for the observed genotoxic effects.
Illicit drugs as new environmental pollutants: Cyto-genotoxic effects of cocaine on the biological model Dreissena polymorpha / A. Binelli, A. Pedriali, C. Riva, M. Parolini. - In: CHEMOSPHERE. - ISSN 0045-6535. - 86:9(2012), pp. 906-911.
|Titolo:||Illicit drugs as new environmental pollutants: Cyto-genotoxic effects of cocaine on the biological model Dreissena polymorpha|
BINELLI, ANDREA PAOLO (Primo)
PEDRIALI, ALESSANDRA (Secondo)
RIVA, CONSUELO (Penultimo)
PAROLINI, MARCO (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||Biomarkers; Cocaine; Illicit drugs; Non-target organisms|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/07 - Ecologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2012|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.10.056|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|