A broad spectrum of concomitant disorders may complicate heart failure adding further morbidity and mortality risk. Comorbidities may be subdivided into cardiovascular and noncardiovascular. The first group includes hypertension, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, arrhythmias and valvular heart disease. Noncardiovascular comorbidities include respiratory, endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, renal, hematopoietic, neurological as well as musculoskeletal conditions. In recent years, advances in the treatment of heart failure have not been attended by important changes in management of its comorbidities. They now seem to be major causes of the poor prognosis of heart failure patients. In this review we provide an updated summary of the epidemiological, pathophysiological and clinical characteristics of comorbidities as well as their potential impact for heart failure treatment.
|Titolo:||Cardiovascular and noncardiovascular comorbidities in patients with chronic heart failure|
|Parole Chiave:||Heart failure ; risk factors ; humans ; prognosis ; disease progression ; chronic disease ; cardiovascular diseases ; time factors ; comorbidity ; risk assessment|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/11 - Malattie dell'Apparato Cardiovascolare|
|Data di pubblicazione:||feb-2011|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.2459/JCM.0b013e32834058d1|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|