In the last 2 decades, a large proportion of studies have focused on the relationship between maternal periodontal disease and poor obstetric outcomes. The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge about human studies on the pathogenetic mechanisms linking periodontal diseases with adverse pregnancy outcomes. A search of the medical literature was conducted using NIH (National Institute of Health) Pubmed through April 2011. Articles were identified with the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) and free text terms "small for gestational age (SGA)," "preeclampsia," "preterm labor," and "periodontal disease." Experimental human studies have shown that periodontal pathogens may disseminate toward placental and fetal tissues accompanied by an increase in inflammatory mediators in the placenta. As such, new inflammatory reactions within the placental tissues of the pregnant woman may occur, the physiological levels of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the amniotic fluid may increase and eventually lead to premature delivery. Although many data from clinical trials suggest that periodontal disease may increase the adverse pregnancy outcome, the exact pathogenetic mechanism involved remains controversial. The findings explain the potential link between periodontal infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes. First, periodontal bacteria can directly cause infections both of the uteroplacenta and the fetus; second, systemic inflammatory changes induced by periodontal diseases can activate responses at the maternal-fetal interface. Of note, associative studies have produced different results in different population groups and no conclusive evidence has still been produced for the potential role of preventive periodontal care to reduce the risk factors of preterm birth.
Pathogenic mechanisms linking periodontal diseases with adverse pregnancy outcomes / I. Cetin, P. Pileri, A. Villa, S. Calabrese, L. Ottolenghi, S. Abati. - In: REPRODUCTIVE SCIENCES. - ISSN 1933-7191. - 19:6(2012 Jun), pp. 633-641.
|Titolo:||Pathogenic mechanisms linking periodontal diseases with adverse pregnancy outcomes|
CETIN, IRENE (Primo)
PILERI, PAOLA (Secondo)
ABATI, SILVIO (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||periodontal diseases ; adverse pregnancy outcomes|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/40 - Ginecologia e Ostetricia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||giu-2012|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1933719111432871|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|