The implant of a femoral prosthesis is a critical process because of the relatively high temperature values reached at the bone/cement interface during the cementation of the infibulum. In fact, the cement is actually a polymer that polymerizes in situ generating heat. Moreover, the conversion of monomer into polymer is never 100%; this is dangerous because of the toxicity of the monomer. In this paper, we present a 3-D axisymmetric mathematical model capable of taking into account both the geometry of the implant and the chemical/physical properties of the cement. This model, together with its numerical simulation, thus represents a useful tool to set up the optimal conditions for the new materials developed in this orthopaedic field. The real complex geometry is assumed to be a bone/cement/metallic system having cylindrical symmetry, thus allowing the model to be reduced to two space variables. The cementation process is described by the Fourier heat equation coupled with a suitable polymerization kinetics. The numerical approximation is accomplished by semi-implicit finite differences in time and finite elements in space with numerical quadrature. The full discrete scheme amounts to solve linear positive definite symmetric systems preceded by an elementwise algebraic computation. We present various numerical simulations which confirm some critical aspects of this orthopaedic fixing technique such as thermal bone necrosis and the presence of unreacted residual monomer.

Numerical simulation of thermal bone necrosis during cementation of femoral prostheses / S. Mazzullot, M. Paolini, C. Verdi. - In: JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL BIOLOGY. - ISSN 0303-6812. - 29:5(1991), pp. 475-494.

### Numerical simulation of thermal bone necrosis during cementation of femoral prostheses

#### Abstract

The implant of a femoral prosthesis is a critical process because of the relatively high temperature values reached at the bone/cement interface during the cementation of the infibulum. In fact, the cement is actually a polymer that polymerizes in situ generating heat. Moreover, the conversion of monomer into polymer is never 100%; this is dangerous because of the toxicity of the monomer. In this paper, we present a 3-D axisymmetric mathematical model capable of taking into account both the geometry of the implant and the chemical/physical properties of the cement. This model, together with its numerical simulation, thus represents a useful tool to set up the optimal conditions for the new materials developed in this orthopaedic field. The real complex geometry is assumed to be a bone/cement/metallic system having cylindrical symmetry, thus allowing the model to be reduced to two space variables. The cementation process is described by the Fourier heat equation coupled with a suitable polymerization kinetics. The numerical approximation is accomplished by semi-implicit finite differences in time and finite elements in space with numerical quadrature. The full discrete scheme amounts to solve linear positive definite symmetric systems preceded by an elementwise algebraic computation. We present various numerical simulations which confirm some critical aspects of this orthopaedic fixing technique such as thermal bone necrosis and the presence of unreacted residual monomer.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: `https://hdl.handle.net/2434/177610`
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