In the present study, the within-subject normal symmetry of footprint shape and size was analyzed from a mathematical standpoint. On the standardized left and right footprints of 83 adolescents (46 boys, 37 girls) aged 12-15 years (mean 13 years), the outline of each foot excluding the toes was identified and automatically digitized by a computerized video analyzer. Only those subjects with both left and right continuous footprints were further analyzed (36 boys, 26 girls). The footprint area was computed. The footprint shape, independent of its size, was quantified using the elliptic Fourier analysis with a 20-harmonic truncation. The symmetry in shape was quantified on an intra-subject basis by calculating a morphological distance D between the mathematical reconstructions of the left and right footprints of each subject. Symmetry in size was assessed by right-to-left area ratio. Subjects were grouped for sex, and the mean values computed. Mean footprint area was significantly larger in boys than in girls (p < 0.05). Asymmetry in size (area ratio) was 1.01 in girls, 1 in boys. Within-subject symmetry in footprint shape appeared high, with mean morphological distances of 5.95 in girls, and 6.06 in boys. No consistent associations between footprint symmetry and age, height and body weight, or shoe size were found. The mean size-independent shapes of the male and female left and right footprints were also calculated. Together with the analysis of individual asymmetry, they could be used as quantitative parameter in clinical diagnosis.

Harmonic analysis of footprint symmetry in healthy adolescents / C. Sforza, N. Fragnito, G. Serrao, V.F. Ferrario. - In: ANNALS OF ANATOMY. - ISSN 0940-9602. - 182:3(2000), pp. 285-291.

Harmonic analysis of footprint symmetry in healthy adolescents

C. Sforza
Primo
;
G. Serrao
Penultimo
;
V.F. Ferrario
Ultimo
2000

Abstract

In the present study, the within-subject normal symmetry of footprint shape and size was analyzed from a mathematical standpoint. On the standardized left and right footprints of 83 adolescents (46 boys, 37 girls) aged 12-15 years (mean 13 years), the outline of each foot excluding the toes was identified and automatically digitized by a computerized video analyzer. Only those subjects with both left and right continuous footprints were further analyzed (36 boys, 26 girls). The footprint area was computed. The footprint shape, independent of its size, was quantified using the elliptic Fourier analysis with a 20-harmonic truncation. The symmetry in shape was quantified on an intra-subject basis by calculating a morphological distance D between the mathematical reconstructions of the left and right footprints of each subject. Symmetry in size was assessed by right-to-left area ratio. Subjects were grouped for sex, and the mean values computed. Mean footprint area was significantly larger in boys than in girls (p < 0.05). Asymmetry in size (area ratio) was 1.01 in girls, 1 in boys. Within-subject symmetry in footprint shape appeared high, with mean morphological distances of 5.95 in girls, and 6.06 in boys. No consistent associations between footprint symmetry and age, height and body weight, or shoe size were found. The mean size-independent shapes of the male and female left and right footprints were also calculated. Together with the analysis of individual asymmetry, they could be used as quantitative parameter in clinical diagnosis.
Footprint; Fourier series; Man; Morphometry; Shape; Symmetry
Settore BIO/16 - Anatomia Umana
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/174962
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