According to what has emerged from an analysis of the situation of Italian beef cattle, it seems necessary, in a market where competitors and production costs increase, to improve the zootechnical management within the farm highlighting the critical points, and work towards finding solutions and limiting the economic impact on the farm budget. For this purpose during the course of doctorate three studies were conducted with the aim to assess the incidence and the economic impact caused by the onset of health problems (first and second study) and the use of essential oils in order to optimize the immune response and growth performance of beef cattle (third study). The first study focused on methods of Italian beef breeding and health issues in the conditioning phase. We analyzed the impact and incidence of the most common diseases of beef cattle breeding as a consequence of the chosen type of adaptation method of imported bovines: classic or conditioned type (animals that have had a vaccination treatment in the country of origin before departure for Italy). In detail, the two main categories, classic and conditioned adaptation, have been divided into subcategories, to highlight, according to gender, animal weight and percentage of weight loss during transport, the incidence and correlation with health issues that normally involved cattle during the adaptation phase: BRD, joint and gastroenteric disease. The study showed an increased predisposition to respiratory diseases in the group subjected to the conditioning method. This data is correlated to the different environmental microbial component of the herds of origin and to the vaccination plans that are not always compliant and similar to those of the destination countries. The second study discussed in detail the effect of respiratory diseases on growth performance of young bulls. The parameters monitored for the classification of BRD are aligned with the detection methods used in clinical studies following the procedures of good practices required in respect of the animal. To complete the study, weights were recorded at intervals of time in order to verify how breathing problems can affect the increase of average daily weight. The analysis of data during the study, has highlighted how the respiratory disease is likely to affect growth performance especially in the first period of adaptation, lower than 0,350 kg/day compared to those not suffering from respiratory disease, showing a significant impact on IMPG also in the following stages of the production cycle. In conclusion, some considerations have been expressed about medical treatments that are normally used in BRD cases, the costs of treatment and the importance of implementing a specific health management (prophylaxis, metaphylaxis, therapy) for pathogens on the farm. The third study derives from the analysis of the zootechnics and nutrition improvements in the last years. The use of ionophore antibiotics in the food has found great success in containing the losses of energy and protein that characterize the digestion of ruminants. The integration of these molecules in animal food, however, met a growing disapproval from consumers, because of the risk of occurrence of the antibiotic resistance phenomenon due to the presence of residues in animal products. For this reason, their use has been permanently banned from European Union since January 2006 ( 1831/2003/CEE, European Commission, 2003). Scientific researchers conducted in vitro revealed how the integration of the diet with certain types of essential oils can facilitate the modulation of ruminal fermentation and thanks to their targeted antimicrobial action, increase the production of volatile fatty acids, reducing the concentration of ammonia in rumen. The study was conducted to test the effect of the integration of the diet with essential oils of cinnamaldehyde, eugenol and capsaicin, on growth performance and on the immune response of Charolaise cattle. The study have showed that the essential oils have a wide range of beneficial effects on the health of ruminants, having a positive effect on inflammatory processes and on all those diseases in which free radicals are involved. In conclusion, the results emphasize that the BRD is a major health issues in the first phase of breeding with serious repercussions on the productive performance. Furthermore, in addition to specific health management, the integration of the diet with essential oils may decrease the incidence of these problems, improving rumen activity, the immune response and growth performance of beef cattle.
|Titolo:||APPROACHES OF HEALTH AND NUTRITIONAL PROPHYLAXIS IN CATTLE FARMING AND EFFECTS ON WELFARE AND PERFORMANCE|
|Supervisori e coordinatori interni:||BONTEMPO, VALENTINO|
|Data di pubblicazione:||1-mar-2012|
|Parole Chiave:||BRD ; essential oils|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore AGR/18 - Nutrizione e Alimentazione Animale|
|Citazione:||APPROACHES OF HEALTH AND NUTRITIONAL PROPHYLAXIS IN CATTLE FARMING AND EFFECTS ON WELFARE AND PERFORMANCE ; tutor: G. Savoini ; coordinator: V. Bontempo. - Milano : Università degli studi di Milano. Universita' degli Studi di Milano, 2012 Mar 01. ((24. ciclo, Anno Accademico 2011.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Tesi di dottorato|