PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To bring to the attention of the clinician the metabolic effects of most common sedatives and analgesics used in critically ill patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Most patients admitted to the intensive care unit require sedation and analgesia to reduce anxiety, agitation, and delirium and provide pain relief. Inappropriate sedation and analgesia techniques can cause harm to the already compromised patient if they do not take into account the metabolic effect they produce. SUMMARY: Metabolically critical illness can be divided in two phases, and acute and a prolonged one. Whereas the acute or hypermetabolic phase is characterized by elevated circulating concentration of catabolic hormones and substrate utilization to provide energy to vital organs, the prolonged or catabolic phase of critical illness is marked by reduced endocrine stimulation and severe loss of body cell mass. The most common analgesic and sedative agents used in the intensive care unit, if used in small or moderate doses, do not interfere significantly with the metabolic milieu; however, prolonged infusions, and in high doses, without adequate monitoring of level of sedation and quality of analgesia, can precipitate morbid events. Further research is needed in the metabolic aspects of analgesia and sedation in the intensive care unit, particularly if a multimodal pharmacologic strategy is used whereby multiple interventions aim at minimizing the risk of overdosing and contributing to attenuation of the stress response associated with critical illness.
|Titolo:||Metabolic and endocrine effects of sedative agents|
|Parole Chiave:||Hormones; Metabolism; Sedative and analgesic drugs; Stress response|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/41 - Anestesiologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||ago-2005|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|